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laddhu. A milk-ball sweet.

laghu-pranayama (-praanaayaama). Simplified system of breath control.

lajja (lajjaa). Modesty.

lakh. Hundred thousand.

lakshana. Characteristic, sign, aspect.

Lakshmana. Brother of Rama and son of Sumitra; represents intellect.

Lakshmi (Lakshmee). Consort of Vishnu, goddess of wealth.

Lalitha (Lalithaa). Supreme female Deity in its beneficent form; a form of goddess Durga.

Lalitha Sahasranama (Lalithaa Sahasranaama). The 1008 names of Lalitha, the Supreme Deity.

Lanka. Capital city in Sri Lanka (Ceylon) of the demon Ravana.

Lankini (Lankinee). Also Lankalakshmi. Demoness guard of Lanka.

Lava. Twin son of Rama and Sita.

lavana. Salt.

Lavana. Sea of Salt.

Lavana. Terrible demon child of Vibhishana and Madhu; given trident of Siva for penance; killed by Satrughna with help of Rama.

Lavapura. City given to Lava, the modern Lahore.

laya. Merging, dissolution, absorption.

leela. Divine sport or play.

Leela (Leelaa). Woman who attained heaven through her devotion.

linga-deha (-dheha). Subtle body.

lingam. Egg-shaped stone; symbol of Siva; the form of the formless; symbolizes merger of the form with the formless.

lobha. Greed.

loka. Region, world. Usually refers to the three worlds of earth, atmosphere, and sky, but it can mean 7 or even 14 worlds (7 above and 7 lower).

loka-dharma. Worldly dharma.

loka-kalyana (-kalyaana). Worldly prosperity.

loka-matha (-maatha). Mother of all beings.

loka-palaka (-paalaka). World protector.

loka-sangraha. Well-being of the world.

loka-santhi (-shaanthi). World peace.

loka-siksha (-shiksha). Worldly punishment.

loukika. Connected with this world.

maadhyamika. Noontime.

maam-ekam. Me alone.

maanam. Self respect; pride.

maatsarya (maathsarya). Envy.

mada (madha). Pride.

Madalasa (Madhaalasaa). Wife of King Rithadwaja. Once the demon Patalaketu carried her away to the nether world; Patala and King Rithadwaja rescued her.

Madana-mohana (Maadhana-mohana). A person with captivating charm; a name for Krishna.

Madhava (Maadhava). God (name for Krishna); Master of illusion (maya), Lord of Lakshmi.

Madhava. See Madhwacharya.

Madhava-thathwa (Maadhava-thatthva). Godliness. God Principle.

Madhava-thwa (Maadhava-thva). Divinity.

Madhu. One of the demons born from the ear-wax of Vishnu; brother of Kaitabha and father of Lavana.

Madhu Kanda (Kaanda). First two sections of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.

madhura. Sweet, attractive

Madhu-sudana (-suudhana). "Killer of the Madhu demon". Name for Krishna.

Madhu-vana. Honey forest.

Madhu-vidya (-vidhyaa). Special ritual worship of the Sun.

Madhwacharya (Madhvaachaarya). 13th cent. exponent of dualist philosophy; lived in the South Indian court of Vijayanagar; author of Vedantic works; founder of a sect of Vaishnavas; refuted monism of Sankaracharya.

madhyama. Middling, average.

Magadha. Region of Vasu, grandson of Brahma, through which the Sone river flows.

Magadhi (Maagadhi). River flowing in Magadha, through five mountains.

Magha. One of the 27 constellations.

Magha (Maagha). January-February; month associated with constellation Magha.

maha (mahaa). Great.

Mahaameru. The seat of Lord Siva; the golden peak of Himalaya.

Mahabharatha (Mahaabhaaratha). Ancient epic in poetic form, by sage Vyasa; describes conflict between the Pandava brothers and their cousins, the 100 Kaurava brothers. It contains the Bhagavad Gita, the metaphysical teaching of Krishna to Arjuna.

maha-bhuthas (mahaa-bhuuthas). Collection of the inner forces of the five elements.

Mahadeva (Mahaadheva). Name for Siva; the great Lord.

Maha-karana (Mahaa-kaarana). Supreme Cause.

Maha-lakshmi (Mahaa-lakshmee). Goddess Lakshmi.

maha-maya (mahaa-maayaa). Great illusion.

maha-pralaya (mahaa-pralaya). Final dissolution.

maha-prasthanam (mahaa-prasthaanam). Setting out on the great journey to death.

maha-purusha (mahaa-purusha). Outstanding sage.

maha-raja (mahaa-raaja). Great king.

maha-rishi (mahaa-rishi). Great sage.

Mahar-loka. Great world; fourth of seven Upper Worlds.

Maharoma (Mahaaroma). Son of Kirthiratha and father of Hriswarupa.

maharshi. Great sage.

mahath. Cosmic intelligence; great, meaningful; intellect.

mahath-ahamkara (-ahamka ara). The primordial great ego.

maha-thala (mahaa-thala). The great pit; sixth lower world.

maha-thathwa (-thatthva). Supreme Principle; cosmic intellect.

mahatma (mahaathma). Great soul.

maha-vakya (mahaa-vaakya). Divine maxim on Absolute Reality.

maha-vira. Great hero.

Mahavira. Son of Brihadratha and father of Sudrithi.

Maha-yuga (Mahaa-yuga). Great age, period of 12,000 yugas.

Mahendra Peak (Mahendhra Peak). A holy mountain.

Maheswara (Maheshvara). Name for Siva; the great Lord.

Mahodara (Mahodhara). One of Ravana's army chiefs.

Mahodaya (Mahodhaya). City built by Brahma's grandson Kusanabha.

Mahoraga. Great serpent.

Mainaka (Mainaaka). Holy mountain north of Kailasa. Bhagiratha did penance to bring the Ganga to the earth on this mountain.

Mainda (Maindha). Monkey hero warrior.

maithri (maithree). Comradeship with the good; affection for the name of God.

Maitreyi (Maithreyee). Female consort of Yajnavalkya; one of the greatest sage-philosophers in the Upanishads. Maitreyi was known for her wisdom. See the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.

Makaraksha (Makaraaksha). Great warrior for Ravana.

Makaradwaja (Makaradhvaja). Guard in Ahi-Ravana's city.

mala. Contamination, dirt.

Malada (Maladha). A kingdom mentioned in Ramakatha I.

Malava (Maalava). People of a region of the west coast of India; partisans of the Kauravas.

malina. Impure.

malina sathwa (satthva). Impure consciousness.

Mallamma. Name of a great lady devotee.

Malyavantha (Maalyavaantha). One of Ravana's ministers and father of Ravana's mother.

mama-kara (-kaara). Mine-ness.

mama-karma. My karma.

manana. Reflection, meditation, understanding.

manas. Feeling, mind.

manasa (maanasa). Mental.

manasa-putra (maanasa-puthra). Mental son.

manasa-sarovar (maanasa-sarovara). Pellucid waters of the mind.

Manasa-Sarovar (Maanasa-Sarovar). Lake of the mind. Lake created by Brahma; source of the Sarayu river in the northern Himalayas, now in Tibet.

manasika-sambhaashana (maanasika-sambhaashana). Inner dialogue.

manava (maanava). Human being.

manava-thathwa (maanava-thatthva). Humanness, essential nature of human being.

manavathwa (maanavathva). Human value.

Mandakini (Mandhaakinee). River in Uttar Pradesh that flows near the Chitrakuta Mountain.

mandala. Section.

Mandara (Mandhara) Mountain. Holy mountain that served as the churning stick at the churning of the ocean for amritha.

Mandava (Maandhava). A monkey under Sugriva's command.

Mandavi (Maandavee). Wife of Bharatha, daughter of Kushadwaja, and niece of Janaka.

Mandhata (Maandhaatha). Eminent king in the dynasty of Ikshvaku. Son of Yuvanaswa and father of Susandhi.

mandir (mandhir). Temple.

Mandodari (Mandodhaaree). Ravana's wife, queen of Lanka.

Mandukya Upanishad (Maandhukya Upanishath). One of the ten most important Upanishads; it sets forth the doctrine that the whole world is present in the syllable Om.

manes. Souls of the ancestors.

mangala. Auspicious, fortunate.

Mangala Day. Tuesday; lucky or auspicious day.

mangalyam (maangalyam). Happiness, married state.

Manigriva (Manigreeva). Twin son of Kubera, turned into tree by the curse of sage Narada.

Manmatha. God of love.

manoakasa (mano-aakaasha). Mind-ether.

manobalam. Mind-strength.

manomaya-kosa (-kosha). Mental sheath of the body.

manonasanam (manonaashanam). Destruction of the mind.

manosanyasa (manosanyaasa). Mental renunciation.

mantap. Hall.

Manthara (Mantharaa). Hunchbacked maid of Queen Kaika.

manthri. Counselor, minister.

mantra (manthra). Sacred syllable or word(s) to be repeated (often silently) for attaining perfection or self-realization; a mystic formula for spiritual enlightenment.

mantra-japa (manthra-japa). Repetition of a mantra.

mantra-krit (manthra-krith). Creator of mantras.

mantra-sastra (manthra-shaasthra). The science of the Vedic sacred formulae.

mantric (maanthrik). Of or pertaining to a mantra.

Manu. The first father of mankind; author of the codes of righteous conduct (Dharma Sastras); son of Surya (the sun) and father of Vaivaswatha Manu, the present progenitor of mankind.

Manu-dharma. Code of virtuous conduct presented in the Dharma sastras by Manu.

Manu Dharma Sastra (Shaasthra). Codes of righteous conduct written by Manu.

manushya. Human being.

manushya-loka. Region or level of humans.

Manu-smrithi. Laws of Manu.

Manvanthara. An age of Manu.

marga (maarga). Path.

Margasira (Margashira). A month during the November-December period.

Maricha (Maareecha). Demon son of Thataki, uncle of Ravana.

Marichi (Mareechi). Mental son of Hiranyagarbha; one of the ten sages. King Dasaratha's ancestral line is traced back to Marichi.

marjala-kisora (maarjaala-kishora). Kitten (young of a cat).

Markandeya (Maarkandeya). As a boy, he knew all the Vedas and Sastras; at 16, he started meditating on Siva so steadfastly that the day of his death passed him by, and he remained 16 for the next 10 million years.

markata. Monkey.

markata-kisora (-kishora). Baby monkey.

Maru. Son of Seegharaga and father of Prasusruka.

Maru. Son of Haryasva and father of Prateendhaka.

maruth. Wind.

Maruth. Also Maruthi. God of wind.

Maruth (Maruttha). Wealthy king, who lived in the Kritha-yuga.

masthaka. Brain.

matha. Conclusion.

matha. Religion.

matha (maathaa). Mother.

mathana. Churning.

Mathanga. A great sage; it is he who cursed Vali.

Mathariswan (Maatharishvaan). God of wind.

mathi. Individualized mind.

Mathura (Mathuraa). Krishna's birthplace.

Matsya (Mathsya). The first incarnation of Vishnu, as a Fish.

Matsyasura (Mathsyaasura). Fish demon killed by Krishna.

maya (maayaa). Worldly illusion, mistaking the transient for the real; non-awareness of actuality, appearances masquerading as reality.

Maya (Maayaa). Consort of Vishnu; mother of Mayavi and Dundubhi.

Maya. A Danava king, who served the gods and demons as their architect and builder.

maya-prapancha (maayaa-prapancha). This illusory world, composed of the five elements.

maya-sakthi (maayaa-shakthi). Power of illusion, the veiling and projecting power of God.

Mayavi (Maayaavee). A demon, who was killed by Vali.

mayura (mayuura). Peacock.

Meera (Meeraa). Princess of Rajastan and queen of Chittor; devoted to Krishna; took poison from her husband without any effect; composed devotional songs of exceptional quality.

Meghanada (Meghanaadha). Ravana's son and general.

Mimamsa (Meemaamsa). Exegetical school of Indian metaphysics, the earlier (purva) concerning itself chiefly with interpretation of Vedic ritual and the later (uttara) with the nature of Brahman.

Mimamsaka (Meemaamsaka). Adherent of philosophical system concerning itself chiefly with correct interpretation of the Vedic rituals.

Mimamsa Sastra (Meemamsa Shaasthra). Science of Interpretation and Inquiry into Vedic rituals.

mishra-karmas. Mixed actions; good actions with negative motives.

mithaahaara. Moderate food.

Mithi. Son of Nimi, founder of the kingdom of Mithila. Also known as Janaka, as were all kings of this dynasty.

Mithila. Country of ancient Bharatha, ruled by King Janaka, on the northeastern side of India; Sita's childhood home.

mithra. Friend.

mithya. Mixture of truth and falsehood; neither true nor untrue, but something in between. The world is not untrue (a-sat) but mithya.

mithya-achara (-aacharaa). Unreal living, deluded living.

mithya-jnana (jnaana). False knowledge.

Mitra (Mithra). God always mentioned together with Varuna as rain god(s).

mnaa. Learn by heart (verbal form).

Modaki (Modhakee). Powerful mace given to Rama by Viswamitra.

moha. Delusion caused by false identification, infatuation.

moha-kshaya. Decline of delusion or infatuation.

Mohammed. Seventh century Arabic prophet and founder of religion of Islam.

mohana mantra (manthra). Bewildering mantra.

moksha. Liberation, devoid of delusion. Freedom from bondage.

Moksha-puri. Salvation City.

mouna (mauna). Silence.

mridanga (mridhanga). Drum.

mrinmaya. Consisting of earthly material.

mrithyu. Death.

Muchukunda (Muchukundha). A celebrated king of the Solar dynasty.

muditha (mudhitha). Joy in the company of those who serve others.

muhurtha (muhuurtha). Period of forty-eight minutes.

mukhya-rishi. Foremost sage.

muktha. Free, liberated.

muktha-purusha. Liberated person.

muktha-thrishna. Yearning for liberation.

mukthi. Liberation; final release or emancipation from the cycle of birth and death.

mukhya. Chief, foremost, first.

mula (muula). Primordial matter; root cause, basis, foundation.

mula-prakriti (muula-prakrithi). Causal substance; basic nature.

mumukshu. One who desires liberation.

mumukshuthwa (mumukshuthva). Desire for liberation.

munda. Head.

Mundaka Upanishad (Upanishath). One of the ten most important Upanishads, of Artharva-veda; it presents the Vedantic doctrine of knowledge of Brahman.

muni. Sage.

Muni Kanda (Kaanda). The second set of two sections of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.

muni-kumar (muni-kumaar). Son of a sage.

Murthi-devi (Muurthi-dhevee). Wife of Dharma and mother of the twins Nara and Narayana.