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gada (gadha). Mace.

Gajendra (Gajendhra). Elephant. In Sathya Sai Speaks III 40, Sai Baba mentions that the Gajendra or elephant (man) who was caught by the alligator (egotism) while frolicking in the lake (the objective world) was saved by the Lord (spiritual practices).

Ganapathi. Ganesha, head of an assemblage, Siva's elder son.

gandha. Smell, fragrance.

Gandhamadana (Gandhamaadhana). Mountain range. A holy mountain east of the Himalayas.

Gandhari (Gaandhaaree). Virtuous wife of Dhritharashtra, mother of Kauravas.

Gandharvas. Celestial musicians, a class of demigods; born to the sage Kasyapa and wife Arishta.

Gandhi. Mohandas Karamachand Gandhi. Famed for his peaceful opposition to British rule in India and his part in achieving India's independence.

Gandiva (Gaandeeva). Arjuna's bow.

Ganga (Gangaa). The 1560-mile-long Ganges river; starts in the Himalayas and flows generally east into the Bay of Bengal; the most sacred river of India.

ganja. Marijuana.

garbha. Womb.

Garga. Elderly sage son of Bharadwaja.

Garga. Family priest of the family of Nanda (the foster-father of Krishna).

Gargi (Gaargee). Celebrated female sage Vachaknavi, born in the family of Garga.

Garuda. Celestial bird, white-crested eagle, king of the feathered race, vehicle for Lord Vishnu.

Garuda Purana (Puurana). Seventeenth Purana.

gatha-prajna. Lacking wisdom.

Gauda. Central Bengal, farming country.

gauna. Derived, secondary.

gauna-bhakthi. Indirect or secondary devotion (through rituals).

gaura. Saffron colour.

Gauranga (Gauraanga). Name for Chaithanya, a great saint.

Gauri (Gauree). Siva's consort Parvathi.

Gautama (Gauthama). Great sage who brought the Godavari River to earth for the benefit of mankind.

Gautama (Gauthama). Author of Nyaya system of philosophy and logical system.

Gautama (Gauthama). Father of Nachiketas; also known as Yajnasravas.

Gavaksha (Gavaaksha). A monkey king and great warrior, who helped Rama.

gayas (gayaas). Vital airs.

Gayatri Devi (Gaayathree Dhevee). Presiding deity of the Gayatri mantra.

Gayatri mantra (Gaayathree mantra). Ancient Vedic prayer to awaken the intelligence and lead to enlightenment.

ghana. Heavy, great.

ghanta. Bell, gong.

ghat (ghaat). Steps leading to river's edge on hilly terrain.

ghata. Pot.

ghrana (ghraana). Nose.

Girivraja. City prominent in the Puranas; built by Brahma's grandson Vasu. Girivraja means "collection of hills".

Gita (Geetha). Literally, song. Short for Bhagavad Gita, the Song of God.

Gita-bhavanam (Geetha-bhavanam). Mansion of Gita.

Githopasana (Geethopaasana). Adoring God as the Master who teaches the Gita that reveals the way.

glaani. Decline, weakening.

Godavari (Godhaavaree). Sacred river of south India; cuts across central south India, flowing from west to east.

Gogra (Goghra). River in ancient India; the Thamasa is its tributary.

go-hathya. Bovicide.

Gokarna. Sacred place extolled in the Puranas; situated on the extreme north of Kerala.

Gokula. Village of cowherds on the banks of Yamuna wherein Nanda and Krishna resided.

Go-loka. Vishnu's heaven.

Gomathi. Celebrated river of puranic times; tributary of the Ganga river.

gopa. Herdsman.

Gopala (Gopaala). Cowherd boy. A name for Lord Krishna.

Gopatha Brahmana (Braahmana). One of the Brahmana texts of the Vedas.

gopi (gopee). Cowherd maiden.

gopi-vallabha (gopee-vallabha). Beloved of the gopis.

gopura. Decorated gate to the temple.

gothra. Family, race, lineage.

Gouranga (Gouraanga). Name for Chaithanya.

Govardhana hill. Mountain lifted by Krishna.

govinda. Guardian (e.g. of cows or individuals)

Govinda (Govindha). Name for Krishna.

Gowdeyopasana (Gaudheyopasana). Gowdha form of worship, worshipping Radha-Krishna.

grantha. Scriptural text or book.

Granth Saheb (Saaheb). Sacred scriptural text of the Sikhs.

Grihalakshmi (Grihalakshmee). Goddess of the home.

grihapathi. Master of the home.

grihastha. Householder, one of the four stages of life (asramas).

grihastha-dharma. Dharma of householder.

grihini (grihinee). Housewife.

grihitha. Acceptor.

guda. Sugar.

gudaakesa (gudaakesha). Master of senses; thick-haired (Arjuna). A person who has overcome sloth, sleep, and ignorance.

guha. Cave.

Guha. King of the country of Nishadas on banks of the river Ganga.

guhya. Genitals.

guna. Quality, characteristic. The qualities of sathwa, rajas, and thamas (serenity, passion, ignorance) are general universal characteristics of all kinds of mental tendencies and actions/thoughts, which are prompted by specific kinds and mixtures of these three qualities. For example, sathwic food is health-giving, strength-giving and delightful; rajasic food is spicy, sour, or salty and brings on diseases; and thamasic food is impure, old, stale, tasteless, or rotten.

guna-saamya-avastha. State of perfect balance of qualities.

guna-swarupa (-svaruupa). Embodiment of quality.

guru. Preceptor, teacher, guide to spiritual liberation.

Guru-gita (-geethaa). Section of the Skanda Purana, the epic story of Skanda.

guruji. Respected preceptor.

guru-kula. Spiritual teacher's house, where pupils were educated.

guru-putra (-puthra). Son of guru.

Haihayas. Race said to have been descendents of Yadu.

halahala (halaahala). A deadly poison, produced by gods and demons at the churning of the ocean.

hamsa. Swan.

Hamsa. Supreme Spirit typified by the pure white colour of the swan.

Hanuman (Hanumaan). Son of the Wind God and a great ``devotee servant'' of Rama. He was part man, part monkey.

harathi (haarathi). Ritual worship in which lights are waved; also called Aarathi.

Hari. God; destroyer of sins; name for Vishnu.

Haridwar (Haridhvaara). Celebrated bathing place on the river Ganga.

Harini (Harinee). Heavenly nymph who was incited by Indra to tempt sage Thrinabindu.

Hariparayana (Haripaaraayana). A person completely devoted to God.

Hari-prasadha (-prasaadha). Offerings blessed by God (Hari).

Harischandra (Harishchandhra). King of the solar dynasty; very renowned for his unique truthfulness and integrity. Sold himself and family for the sake of truth.

Haryasva (Haryashwa). Son of Dhrishtakethu and father of Maru.

Hasthinapura (Hasthinaapura). Capital city of the Pandavas (and earlier the Kauravas).

hatha-yoga. The yoga of body postures.

havis. Sacred offering into the ritual fire place.

Hayagriva (Hayagreeva). An incarnation of Vishnu, who had the form of a horse above the neck. Haya-griva means "horse-headed".

Hema (Hemaa). A friend of Swayamprabha.

Hemachandra (Hemachandhra). Son of Ikshvaku; father of Suchandra.

hemantha. Winter.

hethu. Origin, cause.

Himalayas (Himaalayas). Sacred mountains of northern India.

Himavaan. Name for Himalayas; also, the demigod of the Himalayas.

himsa. Violence.

Hindu (Hindhu). Person who adheres to Hinduism, the religion based on the Vedas. Name originally applied by foreign invaders to inhabitants of Indus (Sindhu) river valley.

Hiranyagarbha. Cosmic divine mind; cosmic womb; golden egg first created by Brahman, from which all creation issued.

Hiranyakasipu (Hiranyakashipu). A demonic person who forbade mention of Vishnu's name, wicked father of Prahlada, who was a great devotee of the Lord; killed by the man-lion Narashimha, an Avatar of Vishnu.

Hiranyaksha (Hiranyaaksha). Wicked brother of Hiranyakasipu; killed by the wild boar Avatar of Vishnu.

Hladini (Hlaadhinee). Tributary of the Ganga flowing eastward.

homa. Oblation to the gods, performed by offering ghee (clarified butter) on the sacred fire.

hotha. Reciter of prayers (a role in a sacrifical rite or yajna).

hridaya (hridhaaya). Heart.

hridaya-apahari (hridhaya-apahaari). Stealer of hearts.

hridayakasa (hridhayaakaasha). Firmanent of the heart.

hridaya-kshetra (hridhaya-kshethra). Heart field.

hridaya-pushpa (hridhaya-pushpa). Heart-lotus.

Hrishika (Hrisheeka). A great sage who kept Vishnu's bow.

Hriswarupa (Hrishvaruupa). Noble father of King Janaka.

iccha (icchaa). Wish, desire.

iccha-sakthi (icchaa-shakthi). Will power.

ida-naadi-marga (-maarga). Path of the psychic nerve; current flowing through the left nostril; the cooling lunar nerve, as compared to the heating solar nerve, naadi.

idam (idham). This.

ikshu. Sugar cane.

Ikshu. Sea of sugar cane.

Ikshumathi. River that flows near Kurukshetra, site of the famous battle in the Mahabharatha; Mithila lies on its banks.

Ikshvaku (Ikshvaaku). Son of Manu and father of Kukshi; first king of Ayodhya and ancestor of Rama's dynasty.

Indra (Indhra). Lord of the devas (celestials).

Indra-astra (Indra-asthra). Indra's missile.

indra-jala (indhra-jaala). Magician's art, deception.

Indrajit (Indhrajith). Conqueror of Indra; Meghanada.

Indraprastha (Indhraprastha). City of residence of the Pandava brothers.

indriya (indhriya). Sense.

indriya-moha (indhriya-moha). Sublimation of the senses.

indriya-nigraha (indhriya-nigraha). Control of the senses.

Indumathi (Indhumathee). Wife of King Aja; sister of Bhojaraja of Magadha.

Indus. The river Sindhu; see Sindhu.

Iravathi (Iravathee). Daughter of Uttara and wife of Parikshith.

Isa (Eesha). Supreme, Lord.

Isanukatha (Eeshaanukatha). Glories of God (Isa).

Isa Upanishad. See Isavasya Upanishad.

Isavasya Upanishad (Eeshaavaasya Upanishath). One of the ten important Upanishads; it deals with supreme truth of liberation and its attainment.

ishta. Also ishtam. Beloved, cherished, desired.

Ishta-devatha (-dhevatha). Chosen deity.

Iswara (Eeshvara). Lord, God, Supreme Being; name for Siva.

Iswara-pranidhana (Eeshvara-pranidhaana). Surrender to the Lord.

Iswara-sthana (Eeshvara-sthaana). The Changeless Entity.

Iswariya-karma (Eeshvareeya-karma). Action for the Lord, by the Lord.

iswarya (eeshvarya). Fullest splendour of power.

ithihasa (ithihaasa). Historical legend, epic, traditional account of former events.

jaagrath. Waking state.

jaagrath-avastha. Waking state.

jaagrath-swapna (-svapna). Wakeful-dreamy.

Jabali (Jaabaali). A sage, son of Viswamitra.

jada. Inert matter.

jagadguru (jagadhguru). Preceptor of the world.

jagadisa (jagadheesha). Lord of the cosmos or world.

Jagadiswara (Jagadheeshvara). Lord of the cosmos, or world.

jagath. Cosmos, world of change, creation.

jagath-guru. Preceptor of the world.

Jahnavi (Jaahnavee). The river Ganga (Ganges).

jai. Hurrah, victory.

Jaimini. Author of Purva Mimamsa, or the portion relating to ritual action.

Jain. Adherent of Jainism, Indian religion traceable to Mahavira of the 6th century B.C.

Jainopasana (Jainopaasana). Jain mode of worship.

jala. Water.

jala-panchakas. Five subtlenesses that the water element became.

jala-thathwa (-thatthva). Water element or principle.

jama. Derived from "yama (control of the inner senses)".

Jamadagni (Jamadhagni). Hrishika's hermit son and Parasurama's father.

Jambavan (Jaambavaan). Also Jaambavantha. Old monkey leader of extraordinary might; the ruler of the bears.

jana-balam. Strength of people.

Janaka. A self-realized king; Sita's father and Rama's father-in-law. His ancestor was Nimi, a great emperor.

Janaki (Jaanakee). Janaka's daughter Sita.

Jana-loka. World of good men.

Janamejaya. Son of Parikshith and Iravathi.

jangama. The moving.

janma. Birth, existence.

janna. Derived from "yajna (sacrifice)".

japa. Soft prayer or repetition of the name of God.

jaraa. Senility.

Jarasandha (Jaraasandha). King of Magadha and father-in-law of Kamsa; enemy of Krishna.

jarayuja (jaraayuja). Mammals.

Jatayu (Jataayu). A famous eagle, whose wings were scorched when he flew too close to the sun. He tried to rescue Sita, and he played a role in Rama's fight against the demons.

jatha-karma (jaatha-karma). Rite of first cleansing of a newborn infant.

jathi (jaathi). Race, birth.

Jayadeva (Jayadheva). Sanskrit poet; wrote the Gita Govinda, which describes the early life of Krishna.

Jayanta (Jayantha). Son of Indra. Transformed himself into a crow and pecked at Sita's feet, incurring Rama's wrath.

Jesus Christ. Founder of Christian religion; death on cross symbolizes death of the ego.

jihva. Tongue.

jijnaasa. Yearning to know.

jijnasu (jijnaasu). Seeker of wisdom, inquirer.

jiva (jeeva). Individual soul with ego.

jiva-bhava (jeeva-bhaava). Body-oriented feeling.

jiva-branthi (jeeva-bhraanthi). Mistaken identification with the individual.

jiva-loka (jeeva-loka). World of the living.

jivana-paramavadhi (jeevana-paramaavadhi). Goal of life.

jivana-upadhi (jeevana-upaadhi). Means for living.

jivan-muktha (jeevan-muktha). One who is liberated in this life.

jivan-mukthi (jeevan-mukthi). Liberation while alive.

jiva-rupa (jeeva-ruupa). Individual body.

jiva-thathwa (jeeva-thatthva). Life principle.

jivatma (jeeva-aathma). Soul or true Self, at the individual level.

jivatwa-buddhi (jeevathva-buddhi). Body attachment; identification with the body.

jivi (jeevi). Individual or soul.

jnana (jnaana). Spiritual knowledge, experiential wisdom.

jnana-abhyasa (jnaana-abhyaasa). Cultivation of spiritual wisdom.

jnana-bhaskara (jnaana-bhaaskara). Sun of spiritual wisdom.

jnana-drishti (jnaana-dhrishthi). Wisdom eye.

Jnana-kanda (Jnaana-kaanda). Portion of the Vedas that deals with knowledge of Brahman through the path of spiritual wisdom or discriminative knowledge.

jnana-marga (jnaana-maarga). Path of spiritual wisdom.

jnana-nethra (jnaana-nethra). Eye of spiritual wisdom.

jnana-nishta (jnaana-nishtha). Intent on acquiring spiritual wisdom.

jnana-siddhi (jnaana-siddhi). Perfection in spiritual wisdom.

jnana-swarupa (jnaana-svaruupa). The embodiment of spiritual wisdom.

jnana-yajna (jnaana-yajna). Sacrifice involving spiritual wisdom.

jnana-yoga (jnaana-yoga). Path of inner contemplation, spiritual wisdom.

jnana-yogi (jnaana-yogi). Yogi on the path of spiritual wisdom.

jnanen-driyas (jnaanen-dhriyas). Five organs of perception: eye, ear, tongue, nose, and skin; associated with five senses of perception: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch.

jnani (jnaani). Spiritually wise man, realized soul.

jnatha (jnaatha). Knower.

jnatum (jnaathum). Knowing.

jneya. That which is known, the object of knowledge.

Jyeshtha. Lunar mansion of Indra.

jyothi. Divine light.