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Sai Literature uses standard spellings for Sanskrit. In addition, this glossary provides phonetic spellings, in parentheses after the standard ones, to help you pronounce the Sanskrit.   Phonetics


aachamana. Sipping water from the palm of the hand for purification before rites.
aagaami. Action (karma) in which one is now engaged that is bound to affect the future; impending; future.
aagama. The external or ritual aspect of Vedas.
Aagama. That which has come or originated. The primeval source of knowledge. A name for Vedas.
aahithaya. Deposited, placed, as offerings in a sacrificial fire.
aahuthi. Oblations offered in the sacrificial fire.
aahvaana. Invitation, invocation, welcoming.
aajya. Clarified butter (ghee).
aakaara. Form.
aalambana. Support, receptacle.
Aamnaya (Aamnaaya). Sacred tradition handed down by repetition. A name for Vedas.
aapo-jyothi. Splendour of water.
aaraadhaka. Worshiper.
aaraadhya. Worshiped.
Aarathi. Ritual worship in which lights are waved.
aarjava. Honesty.
Aarsha. Related to the sages (rishis). A name for Veda.
aatta. Flour of rice or wheat.
abhan-avarana (aabhaan-aavarana). Veiling with appearance.
abhasa (aabhaasa). Appearance, superimposition of false over real.
abhasa-avarana (aabhaasa-aavarana). Superimposing the boundaries of individuality on the Universal.
abhava-pratheethi. Non-cognition of objects.
a-bhaya. Fearless, no fear.
a-bheda (a-bhedha). Integral; non-differentiating.
a-bhedha-jnana (-jnaana). Integral spiritual knowledge.
abhijith. Victory; eighth period of the day (about midday); an auspicious constellation of time.
Abhimanyu. Arjuna's son and Parikshith's father; slain in battle.
abhisheka. Ablution, bathing.
abyasa (abhyaasa). Systematic, steady practice.
a-chara (-chaara). Unmoving.
achara (aachaara). Precept, behaviour, rules of good conduct.
a-chara-dharma (aachaara-dharma). Good behaviour.
acharya (aachaarya). Spiritual teacher, preceptor, spiritual guide.
acharyopasana (aachaaryopaasana). Reverential service to the preceptor.
a-chetana (-chethana). Non-intelligent, unconscious, inert, senseless.
a-chinthya. Incapable of being conceived.
Adah (Adhah). That, Brahman.
a-dambhithwam (-dhambhithvam). Absence of vanity; sincerity.
Adha. That, Brahman.
adhama. Lowest, worst.
adhara (aadhaara). Basis.
a-dharma. Evil, injustice.
adheya (aadheya). Being based, contained, sustained.
a-dhika-ari. Worst enemy.
adhwara (adhvara). Sacrifice.
Adhwara Veda (Adhvara Vedha). A name for Yajur-veda.
adi-atma (adhi-aathma). Pertaining to the individual soul, spirit, or manifestation of supreme Brahman.
adi-atmic (adhi-aathmika). Pertaining to adi-Atma.
adi-bhauthika (adhi-bhauthika). Pertaining to the physical or material world; the fine spiritual aspect of material objects.
adi-butha (adhi-bhuutha). Whole perishable creation; the primordial form of matter; everything that has name and form.
adi-daiva (adhi-dhaiva). Divinity or fate, the spiritual substratum of the cosmos.
adi-daivika (adhi-dhaivika). Pertaining to divinity or fate, e.g. natural disasters.
adi-kara-murthi (adhi-kaara-murthi). Manifestation of a person of authority.
adi-kari (adhi-kaari). Official, person of authority.
adi-kavi (aadhi-kavi). First among poets.
adi-murthi (aadhi-muurthi). Primordial force.
adisesha (aadhishesha). Also sesha. Serpent, snake.
Adisesha (Aadhishesha). Divine serpent with a thousand heads upon which the earth rests; used by demi-gods and demons together to churn the ocean of milk. Also, reposing bed of Vishnu.
Aditi (Adhithee). Daughter of Dhaksha and wife of Kasyapa; sister of Diti.
aditya (aadhithya). Sun.
Aditya (Aadhithya). Son of Aditi; there were twelve of them, one of them being Surya, the sun, so Surya is sometimes called Aditya.
aditya-varna (aadhithya-varna). Complexion like the sun.
adi-yajna (adhi-yajna). Pertaining to sacrificial aspects.
a-drisya (a-dhrishya). Invisible to the eye.
a-dwaitha (-dhvaitha). Nondualism or monism, the Vedantic doctrine that everything is God.
a-dwaitha-ananda (a-dhvaitha-aanandha). Bliss of being One and Only.
a-dwaitha-bhavana (adhvaitha-bhaavana). Non-dual state.
a-dwaitha-avastha (a-dhvaitha-avastha). Abiding in Brahman.
a-dwaitha-jyothi (a-dhvaitha-jyothi). The light without a second.
a-dwaitha-sthayi (a-dhvaitha-sthaayi). Staying in Brahman.
a-dwaithic (a-dhvaithik). Of or pertaining to nondualism (a-dwaitha).
a-dwaithin (a-dhvaithin). One who propounds nondualism (a-dwaitha).
a-dwaithopasana (a-dhvaithopaasana). Worship of God as present in everything, spiritual effort to experience unity at all times.
adya (adhya). Person receiving an offering, the offeree.
adyasa (adhyaasa). Superimposition.
Adyatma (Adhyaathma). The individual soul, spirit, or manifestation of supreme Brahman.
Adyatmic (Adhyaathmik). Spiritual; pertaining to the individual soul, spirit, or manifestation of supreme Brahman.
Adyatmica Sabha (Adhyaathmika Sabha). Assembly of God.
Agastya (Agasthya). Sage and author of several Vedic hymns; also the star Canopus.
aggi. Derived from "agni (fire)".
agneyastra (agneya-asthra). Rama's fire weapon.
agni. Fire element.
Agni. God of Fire; name for Fire when it is out of sight range.
agni-astra (-asthra). Fire missile.
Agni-Brahmana (-Braahmana). Word for the Section on fire sacrifice.
Agni-deva (-dheva). God of fire.
agni-hotra (-hothra). Ritual of offering oblations in the holy fireplace. Three kinds are: daily obligation, occasional obligation, and optional fire.
Agni-varna. Son of Sudarsana and father of Sigraga.
agra. Primal, primordial.
Agri. First; a name for Agni when within the range of sight.
Ahalya (Ahalyaa). Princess of the Puru dynasty, who was turned into a stone by the curse of her husband, Gautama, for suspected adultery. She regained her form when Rama touched the stone with his divine feet.
aham. The knower, the ' I '.
Aham Brahmasmi (Brahmaasmi). I am Brahman, or I am divine.
aham-kara (-kaara). Ego, self-love, selfish individuality.
ahara (aahaara). Food.
ahavaniya (aahavaneeya). Consecrated fire taken from the perpetual fire and prepared for receiving oblations, esp. the eastern one of the three fires burning at a sacrifice.
ahimsa. Nonviolence.
Ahi-Ravana (Ahi-Raavana). A son of Ravana.
Ahuka (Aahuka). King of the Yadu dynasty, father of Ugrasena, who in turn was the father of Kamsa.
aikshika-astra (asthra). Siva weapon, the unfailing weapon of the third eye opening of Siva.
aikya. Oneness with God, union of the individual soul (jiva) with God.
aiswarya (aishvarya). Power and prosperity.
Aithareya Brahmana (Braahmana). A Brahmana texts of the Veda.
Aithareya Upanishad. (Upanishath). One of the ten important Upanishads. It deals with the world and the human as the creation of Atma, the three-fold birth of Atma, and the nature of the Atma.
a-ja. Birthless.
Aja. King of the Solar Dynasty; son of Rahu and father of Dasaratha.
a-jah. Unborn.
Ajamukhi (Aja-mukhee). A demoness.
a-jara. Decline, diminution.
a-jnana (a-jnaana). Ignorance, stupidity.
a-jnana-avrithi (a-jnaana-aavritthi). Obscuring or deluding power.
a-jnana-sakthi (a-jnaana-shakthi). Power of ignorance.
a-jnani (a-jnaani). Ignorant person.
Akampa. Also Akampana. One of Ravana's mighty demon warriors.
a-karma. Non-action; detached action whose consequences do not leave a binding impression.
a-kartha. Undesigned, no human agent.
akasa (aakaasha). Sky, space, ether.
akasavani (aakashavani). Voice from the sky.
a-keerthi-karam. Quality that causes disgrace or decline of reputation.
akhanda (akhandha). Eternal; continuous.
akhandaika-rasa. Unbroken uniflow of sweetness.
Akhanda-jyothi. The eternal, unbroken light.
a-krodha. Non-anger.
a-kshara. Imperishable, indestructible.
akshara. Syllable, letter.
akshauhini (akshauhinee). A fighting unit consisting of 109350 foot-soldiers, 65610 horses and horsemen, 21870 elephants and elephant warriors, and 21870 chariots and their human equipment.
a-kshaya. Undecaying, never-ending.
Akshayakumara. Ravana's son.
a-kshaya-pathra (-paathra). Never ending plate; vessel given by Lord Sun to the Pandavas.
Alamba Devi (Alambuushaa Dhevi). Celestial goddess, mother of Visala by Ikshvaku.
Alarka. King in the state of Kasi (Benares), who gave his eyes upon the request of a brahmin.
alatha-santhi (alaatha-shaanthi). Extinction of the firebrand circle; refers to analogy of the gleam of the world with circle made by the fast swinging of a fiery stick
alaya (aalaya). House, dwelling.
Allah. God, in the Islam religion.
alochana. Planning, considering.
alpa-buddhi. Dull-witted.
a-maanithwa (-maanithva). Humility, lack of pride, vanity.
a-mala. Absence of impurity.
a-manaska. Blissful state of realization when seer realizes that entire creation is created by Self; mindless; free from all mental activity.
a-manobhava. Mindless state.
a-mara. Without death.
Amaravathi (Amaraavathee). Residence of Indra. Also, a city through which Rama passed on the way to exile in the forest.
Ambarisha (Ambareesha). Pious king of the Ikshvaku dynasty. Son of Prasusruka and father of Nahusha.
a-mritha. Divine nectar (literally, no death or immortal).
a-mritha-dharma. Immortal dharma.
a-mritha-putra (-puthra). Son of eternal divinity.
a-mritha-sanyasa (-sanyaasa). Bliss-filled renunciation.
a-mritha-swarupa (-svaruupa). Immortal nature.
a-mrithathwam (-mrithathvam). Immortality.
amritha-vidya (-vidhyaa). Education for immortality.
a-mrithopadesa (a-mrithopadhesha). Immortality-bestowing or nectarine teaching.
amsa (amsha). Part.
Amsumanta (Amshumantha). King of the solar dynasty; virtuous son of Aswamanja and grandson of Sagara.
a-mulam (a-muulam). Without support, baseless, rootless.
an-aadi (-aadhi). Without beginning.
an-aahatha-dhwani (-dhvani). Unstruck, primeval sound; Om; mystic sound heard by yogis.
an-aarya-jushtam (-jushtham). Ignoble nature or behaviour.
an-aasakthi. Non-attachment, absence of yearning.
an-achara (-aachaara). Improper behaviour or conduct.
an-aham-kara (-aham-kaara). Absence of egotism.
ananda (aanandha). Supreme bliss, unending joy.
ananda-loka (aanandha-loka). Region of heavenly bliss; also Brahma region.
ananda-maya (aanandha-maya). Spiritual bliss.
ananda-maya kosa (aanandha-maya kosha). The sheath of bliss, the innermost sheath of the body.
ananda-nilaya (aanandha-nilaya). Abode of supreme bliss.
ananda-praapti (aanandha-praapthi). Attainment of spiritual bliss.
ananda-swarupa (aanandha-svaruupa). The embodiment of supreme bliss.
an-anga. Limbless.
an-antha. Endless, eternal, unending; infinity. Name of Vishnu.
an-anya-bhaava. Thinking only of Divinity and nothing else.
an-anya-bhaktha. Devotee with one-pointed devotion.
an-anya-bhakthi. One-pointed devotion, admitting no distraction.
an-anya-chintha (-chinthaa). Undivided contemplation (of the Lord).
Anaranya. Son of Bana and father of Trisanku.
an-asana (-ashana). Fasting to death.
Anasuya (Anasuuyaa). Wife of sage Athri and mother of Dattatreya; an incarnation of the Trinity.
an-atma (an-Aathma). Not Atma, or not-Self.
Anatha Rakshaki. The One who protects those who have no one else.
anda-anda. Basic living cell of creation.
andaja. Egg-born.
Andhaka. A king in the Yadu dynasty.
an-eka-bhakthi. Devotion to various things or states.
anga. Limb, part, fact, feature, "earth bit".
Anga. A kingdom in Eastern Bihar, adjoining Bengal.
Angada (Angadha). Vali's son, crown-prince.
anga-vathi. Manifestation based.
Angiras. A sage-hermit born from the mind of Brahma. Indra gave him the name Atharvangiras when Angiras paid him homage by reciting the hymns of Atharva-veda.
Angiro Veda (Vedha). A name for Atharva-veda. See Angiras.
Angulimala (Anguleemaala). Thief reformed by devotion to the Buddha.
angushtra-matra (angushtha-maathra). Thumb-sized.
a-nir-desya (dheshya). Incapable of description.
Aniruddha. Son of Pradyumna and grandson of Krishna.
a-nir-vachaneeya. Beyond description.
a-nithya. Impermanent, transient.
anna. Food.
anna-maya kosa (kosha). Sheath of the body composed of food; the physical sheath.
anna-purna (-puurna). Bestower of food; goddess; a form of Durga (goddess of destruction of evil obstacles).
anor-aneeyaan. Subtler than the subtle.
anritha. Not true, false.
anritha-putra (-puthra). Son of falsehood; child of futility.
antar (anthar). Inner.
antara-prapancha (anthara-prapancha). Inner world.
antar-atma (anthar-aathma). The Atma within; the inner Self.
antar-jagath (anthar-jagath). Inner universe.
antar-mukha (anthar-mukha). Inward focus.
antar-vimarsha (anthar-vimarsha). Inner quest.
antar-yami (anthar-yaamin). Inner ruler or Being that guides all creatures.
anthah-chathushtaya. The four internal senses of mind, intellect, memory, and ego.
anthah-karana. Inner psycho-somatic fourfold instruments of mind, intellect, memory, and ego.
anubhava-jnana (-jnaana). Self-experience; knowledge from personal experience.
anumaana. Inferential perception.
anuraaga. Affection.
anurakthi. Deep attachment to or affection for God.
anusaasitha (anushaasitha). Independent master, one who directs.
Anusasanaparva (Anushaasanaparva). Famous section of moral principles in the Mahabharatha.
anushtana (anushthaana). Undertaking, performance, action; spiritual or good disciplined conduct.
Anusrava (Anushrava). That which was heard serially. A name for the Vedas.
anuvaka (anuvaaka). Section.
anveekshakee. Logical philosophy; metaphysics.
anveshana. Seeking, enquiry.
anya-vathi. Symbolized divinity.
a-nyaya (-nyaaya). Injustice.
apana (apaana). The downward air, which goes out through the anus.
a-para (a-paraa). Immanent, materialised, lower, ordinary.
a-para-prakriti (-paraa-prakrithi). Lower nature, world.
a-para-vidya (-paraa-vidhyaa). Secular science, western knowledge.
a-parichchinna. Indivisible; without parts; without limit or break.
a-parigraha. Non-acceptance of gifts, renunciation.
a-parinami (-parinaami). Modificationless.
a-paroksha. Inner knowledge; direct spiritual knowledge.
a-paroksha-brahma-jnana (-jnaana). Direct perception, knowledge of Brahman.
a-paroksha-jnana (-jnana). Direct spiritual knowledge.
a-pourusheya. Non-personal, superhuman.
a-prameya. Beyond all possibilities of being described by categories, immeasurable.
apsaras. Wives of the Gandharvas, celestial nymphs.
a-purna (-puurna). Not full.
arabhimatha. Dearest and most pleasurable.
arani. Stick of hardwood used in ritual.
aranya (aaranya). Forest.
Aranyakas (Aaranyakas). Religious or philosophical texts closely connected with the brahmins, either composed in the forest or studied there. They deal with inner significances and internal disciplines.
Aranyaparva (Aaranyaparva). First section of the third book of the Mahadhundhumara; contains predictions of the Kali-yuga.
archaka. Worshiper.
archana. Worship, adoration.
archi. Fire.
archi-radi-marga (-raadhi-maarga). Path of Gods, beginning with fire or the Sun's rays, taken by spiritual souls after death.
ardhanga (ardhaanga). Half of the body.
arishadvarga (arishadhvarga). Six inner enemies of man, viz. lust, anger, greed, delusion, pride, and hate.
Arishta. Demon in form of an ox sent by Kamsa to kill Krishna, but Krishna destroyed him.
Arishtanemi. Son of Vinatha and sage Kasyapa.
arjuna. Pure, unsullied, unblemished, white.
Arjuna. Krishna's disciple, in the Bhagavad Gita; third of five Pandava brothers. See Mahabharatha.
Arjuna mountain. White mountain.
artha (aartha). The distressed, suffering.
artha. Wealth, prosperity, material object, thing, aim, purpose, desire.
artha-arthi (-aarthi). One who longs for wealth; the poor.
Arundathi (Arundhathee). Wife of sage Vasishta; regarded as the highest model of wifely devotion and chastity.
a-rupa-laya (-ruupa-laya). Dissolution of the formless.
a-rupa-naasa (-ruupa-naasha). Destruction of the formless or mental agitations.
Aryan (Aaryan). (a) Literally noble. (b) Follower of Vedic or spiritual path. (c) Ancient dwellers of India who composed the Rig-veda; the chief tribe was that of the Bharathas.
a-sahaja. Assumed, unnatural.
a-sakthi. Absence of desire or yearning; detachment.
a-samsakthi. Indifferent, non-attachment.
a-samsari (-samsaari). Not bound by worldly illusion.
asana (aasana). Yoga posture or sitting posture.
a-sanga. Non-attachment.
a-santhi (-shaanthi). Lack of peace; agitated mind; restlessness.
A-sarira (-shareera). Bodyless; name for the Godhead.
a-sat (-sath). False, unreal, non-existent, bad.
a-sat-avarana (-sath-aavarana). Veiling with untruth.
a-sathya. Falsehood.
A-sathya-narayana (-sathya-naaraayana). Lord of untruth.
ashram (aashrama). Hermitage or monastery; residence for saints and spiritual aspirants.
ashram-vasis (aashrama-vaasis). Residents of ashrams, hermitages, or monasteries.
ashta-akshari. Eight syllables.
ashtanga (ashtaanga). Eight parts.
ashtanga-yoga (ashtaanga-yoga). Eight-fold discipline of yoga to destroy ignorance and reach state of communion with Self, as taught by Sage Patanjali.
ashvatta. Banyan tree, impermanent.
Asitha. Son of King Bharatha; father of Sagara.
asoka (ashoka) tree. Tree of moderate size belonging to the leguminous class, with magnificent red flowers.
Asokavana (Ashokavana). Grove of Asoka trees.
asrama (aashrama). A stage of life: one of student, householder, hermit, and renunciate.
asraya (aashraya). That on which a thing depends; support, refuge.
asritha (aashritha). Dependent; taking refuge.
a-stheya. Non-stealing.
asthi. Being, existence; is-ness; synonym for sat.
asthika (aasthika). Believer; theist; God-revering person.
asthikya-buddhi (aasthikya-buddhi). Piety, belief in God.
Asthinapura. City of bones.
a-sthira. Unsteady, unstable.
astra (asthra). Missile, weapon, sword, bow.
a-subha (a-shubha). Inauspicious, maleficent.
a-sura. Demon; term arose when Diti's sons refused to drink the liquor (sura) offered by Varuni, daughter of Varuna.
a-suric (aasurik). Demonic.
a-suri-sampathi (aasuri-sampatthi). Demonic existence, tendencies.
Asurtharajasa (Asuurtha-rajasa). One of the four sons of King Kusa; also, a son of Rama.
a-suya (a-suuya). Jealousy.
Aswa-Brahmana (Ashva-Braahmana). Brahmana relating to horse sacrifice.
Aswalayana (Aashvalaayana). Vedic school founded by Sounaka.
Aswamanja (Ashvamanja). King of solar dynasty; wicked son of Sagara and Kesini; driven away by his father because of his cruelty.
aswamedha yaga (Ashvamedha yaga). Horse sacrifice to absolve a king of all sins. A horse is marked with a victory card and allowed to roam about freely. If anyone stops the horse, the king should go and defeat him in battle and bring back the horse.
Aswapathi (Ashvapathi). Lord of horses, brother-in-law of Dasaratha, Rama's father.
a-swargyam (-svargyam). Quality that destroys the divine in man.
Aswathama (Ashvatthaama). Son of Drona.
Aswija (Aashvayuja). A Vedic month, generally falling between September and October.
Aswini (Ashvini). Twin deities who appear in the sky before dawn in a golden chariot drawn by horses; physicians of the heavens.
atha (athhaa). Thereafter.
athah. For this reason.
athala. Bottomless region; first of the lower worlds beneath the Earth.
a-thanu. Without a body.
Atharvan. Son of Vasishta and author of Atharva-veda.
Atharvana-veda (-vedha). The fourth Veda. After Atharvan, the collator, seer.
Atharvangiro Veda (Vedha). A name for Atharva-veda. See Angiras.
Atharva-samhitha. Atharva-veda. Samhitha means "collection".
Atharva-veda. The fourth Veda. Atharva means "fourth". A steady, unmoved person, of stable nature.
athibala. Super strength.
Athri. A sage; father of Dattatreya. Also, one of 10 mental sons of Hiranyagarbha.
Atikaya (Athikaaya). One of Ravana's sons, a minister and general.
Atma (Aathma). The real Self, one's divinity, God, the substance of everything, the unseen basis, the spark of God within. The Atma is unchanging and immortal; It does not die.
Atma-abhyasa (Aathma-abhyaasa). Practice of remembrance of the Atma.
Atma-ananda (Aathma-aanandha). Atmic bliss, bliss of Self-realization.
Atma-anubhava (Aathma-anubhaava). Atmic experience.
Atma-bhava (Aathma-bhaava). The thought of divine Self itself.
Atma-chaithanya (Aathma-chaithanya). Consciousness.
Atma-chinthana (Aathma-chinthana). Contemplation on the Atma.
Atma-dharma (Aathma-dharma). Atmic duty, divine duty.
Atma-droha (Aathma-dhroha). Self-tormenting, treason to the higher Self.
Atma-jnana (Aathma-jnaana). Knowledge of Self-realization; awareness of Atma.
Atma-jnani (Aathma-jnaani). Self-knower.
Atma-jyothi (Aathma-jyothi). Atmic effulgence.
Atma-hathya (Aathma-hathya). Self-destruction.
Atma-linga (Aathma-linga). Oval stone symbolizing the divine Atma.
Atma-rama (Aathma-raama). Eternal bliss; Rama in the heart.
Atma-rupa (Aathma-ruupa). Embodiment of Atma.
Atma-sakshathkara (Aathma-saakshathkaara). Direct vision of Atma; Self realisation.
Atma-samyama (Aathma-samyama). Perfect restraint of all senses; balance and repose.
Atma-santhi (Aathma-shaanthi). Individual peace.
Atma-sanyasa (Aathma-sanyaasa). Atmic renunciation.
Atma-shatka (Aathma-shatka). The Atmic Six, referring to the six sections of the Aithareya Upanishad.
Atma-sthithi (Aathma-sthithi). The characteristic of the Atma; stage of permanent awareness of one's divinity.
Atma-suddhi (Aathma-shuddhi). Self-purification.
Atma-swarupa (Aathma-svaruupa). Embodiment of the all-pervading divine Self.
Atma-thathwa (Aathma-thatthva). True nature of the Atma, the Atmic Principle.
Atma-vichara (Aathma-vichaara). Inquiry into the nature of Atma.
Atma-vidya (Aathma-vidhyaa). Knowledge of supreme reality or Atma.
Atma-yajna (Aathma-yajna). Self-sacrifice.
Atmic (Aathmik). Of or pertaining to the Atma.
Atreya (Aathreya). Relating to the great sage Athri, or Atreya. Classical Indian medical knowledge is called ayur-veda (science of health and long life), the two chief traditions being those of Atreya and Dhanvantari. Later presented by Charaka in the Charaka Samhitha (text stressing diagnosis and prognosis).
attha. Offering, boiled rice.
Aum. Om; Designation of the Universal Brahman; sacred, primordial sound of the universe.
Avaang-manogochara. Ungraspable by word or thought, Godhead.
avadhana (avadhaana). Concentration.
avadhutha (avadhuutha). One who is immersed in spiritual bliss, ever joyous, oblivious of the world; a renunciate.
Avanthi. One of the seven sacred cities of Bharath (India) on the banks of the Sipra river.
avarana (aavarana). Veiling.
avarana-sakthi (aavarana-shakthi). Veiling power.
avastha. State, condition.
a-vastu. The unreal.
Avatar (Avathaar). An incarnation of God, taking a form according to the age in which the incarnation occurs. Special manifestation of God on Earth.
Avatar-murthi (Avathaar-murthi). Form of the Avatar.
avayava. Limb, part, member.
a-vibhaktha. Undivided, non-separate.
a-vidya (-vidhyaa). Ignorance.
a-vidya-maya (-vidhyaa-maayaa). Ignorance-based illusion.
a-vinaasi (-vinaashi). Without decline and extinction.
avina-bhava (avinaabhaava) sambandha. Inseparable relationship; essential characteristic.
a-vyaktha. Unmanifest, imperceptible.
a-vyapadesa (-vyapadesha). Beyond denotation.
a-vyavaahaarya. Without worldly action.
a-vyaya. Indestructible, unchanging.
ayah (aayah). Child's nurse.
Ayodhya. City where Rama was born and ruled.
ayur-veda (-vedha). Classical Indian medical knowledge; science of health and long life.


baaya-vidya (-vidhyaa). Worldly education, education in externals.
Baba. father, grandfather, wise old man, sir; Sathya Sai Baba or Swami colloquially referred as Baba.
Badari (Badhari). Very holy place in the Himalayas.
baddha. Bound.
baddha-padmasana (padmaasana). Bound lotus pose.
Badraswa (Bhadhraashva). An island near the mountain of Meru.
Bahu-janma. Multiborn.
bahya-prapancha (baahya-prapancha). External world.
Bakasura (Bakaasura). Demon sent by Kamsa in form of a crane, which the child Krishna killed. Bakasura's brother then came as a python to kill Krishna but was also destroyed.
bala. Strength, vigour, power.
Balagopala (Balagopaala). Name for Krishna; ruler of cowherds.
Balarama (Balaraama). Elder brother of Krishna, noted for his strength.
Bali. Emperor of demons; grandson of Prahlada and son of the demon Virochana. Humiliated by dwarf Vamana, who was an incarnation of Vishnu.
Bana (Baana). Son of Vikukshi and father of Anaranya.
Banasura (Baanaasura). Powerful demon king of Shonithapura, descended from Vishnu. Destroyed by Krishna.
bandha-vicchedana (-vicchedhana). Liberation from bonds.
bap (baap). Dad.
bija (beeja). Seed, germ, primary cause; mystical letter or syllable that forms the essential part of a mantra.
bhaarya. Housewife.
bhaavana. Creative thought; creator.
Bhagavad Gita (Bhagavath Geetha). Literally, Song of God. Portion of the Mahabharatha that is a dialogue between Arjuna, one of the Pandava brothers, and Krishna. See Mahabharatha.
Bhagavan (Bhagavaan). Divinity; term of reverential address; Sathya Sai Baba is called Bhagavan by his devotees.
Bhagavantha. The Lord.
Bhagavatha (Bhaagavatha). A textbook of divine love, the story of Avatars, especially Krishna, it describes all the incarnations of Vishnu. It also means those with attachment to God, or the Godly.
Bhagavathas (Bhaagavathas). God's own people; the good, the Godly.
Bhagavatha-thathwa (Bhaagavatha-thathva). Wisdom of the divine.
Bhagavath-sankalpa. Will of God.
Bhagiratha (Bhageeratha). King of Solar Dynasty, son of Amsuman. Gave up his kingdom for enlightenment, but eventually returned as king.
Bhagirati (Bhaageerathi). Name for the Ganga river, because Bhagiratha brought the river to earth.
Bhaishajya Veda (Vedha). A name for Atharva-veda.
bhajan. Devotional song(s) to God; community singing of spirituals.
bhaktha. Devotee of the Lord.
bhakthavatsala. Kind to devotees.
bhakthi. Devotion to God.
bhakthi-maan. A person who is full of devotion.
bhakthi-marga (-maarga). Path of devotion to God.
bhakthi-yoga. Path of love and devotion. A conjunction (in astrological terms) of devotion.
bhakthi-yogi. Yogi on the path of devotion.
bhanopasana (bhanopaasana). Sun worship or meditation on the Sun.
Bharadwaja (Bharadhvaaja). Celebrated sage who taught the science of medicine; seer of Vedic hymns.
Bharath (Bhaarath). India; Indian; descendent of King Bharath, first emperor of India.
Bharatha (Bhaaratha). Mahabharatha.
Bharatha. Son of Dasaratha and Kaika; brother of Rama. "Bharatha" means "he who rules".
Bharatha-desa (Bhaaratha-dhesha). India; region of God-loving people.
Bharatha-khanda (-khandha). Continent of Bharath (India).
Bharatha-kupa (-kuupa). Holy well, by the side of the Chitrakuta mountain, that Bharatha cleaned.
Bharatha-varsha (Bhaaratha-varsha). Culture of India.
Bharathiya (Bhaaratheeya). Indian, dweller in the country of Bharath.
Bhargava (Bhaargava). Sage of the Bhrigu dynasty, author of Vedic hymns. Also called Vaidarbhi.
Bhargavarama (Bhaargava-Raama). Name for Parasurama.
bhashya (bhaashya). Commentary on spiritual texts by great sages.
Bhasmasura (Bhasmaasura). Sage who reduced hmself to ashes through misuse of boons from Siva.
bhathi (bhaathi). That which shines, illumines; chit.
bhautha-prathibandha. Past obstructions.
bhava (bhaava). Being, becoming.
bhava-nasana (bhaava-naashana). The end of ideation.
bhava-roga (bhaava-roga). Disease of worldliness.
Bhava-roga-vaidya (-vaidhya). The Lord; the curer of worldly ills.
bhava-sagara (bhaava-saagara). Ocean of worldly existence.
bhava-samadhi (bhaava-samaadhi). Mental union with the Divine.
bheda (bhedha). Separation, division.
bheri-naada (bheree-naadha). Kettle-drum sound.
Bhils. A mountain race who live in the Vindhya hills.
Bhima (Bheema). Second of five Pandava brothers; named for his size and strength. See Mahabharatha.
Bhishma (Bheeshma). The guardian and patriarch of the Kauravas and Pandavas. Remarkable for his wisdom and unflinching devotion to God. Trapped by his fate to fight on side of evil Kauravas; bled to death on a bed of arrows while thinking of God. See Mahabharatha.
bhoga. Catering to the senses, eating, enjoyment.
bhogaayathana. Abode of enjoyment, body.
bhoga-bhumi (-bhuumi). Pathways of the senses.
bhogya. Object that provides joy.
Bhoja. King of the Yadu tribe.
Bhoja. A territory in Sauvira, near the Sindhu (or Indus) river. Overrun by Kamsa.
bhoktha. Person who enjoys.
bhokthruthwa (bhokthruthva). Being an enjoyer or experiencer.
bhrama. Delusion.
bhramara-naada (-naadha). Bee sound.
Bhrigu. See Brighu.
Bhrigu-prasravana (-prashravana). Region of the Himalayas where Asitha fled.
Bhudevi (Bhuudhevi). The goddess of Earth; wife of Vishnu.
bhukthi. Nourishment, material enjoyment.
Bhu-loka (Bhuu-loka). Earth; first of the Upper Worlds.
bhuma (bhuuma). Vast, limitless, the eternal, the changeless.
bhumi (bhuumi). Earth.
bhumika (bhuumika). Basic step of yoga.
bhutha (bhuutha). Any of the five elementary constituents of the universe; spirit, monster.
bhuthakasa (bhuuth-aakaasha). Atma conditioned by the mind stuff; elemental ether.
Bhuthanatha (Bhuutha-naatha). Lord of the primordial elements; Lord of beings.
bhuvarloka (Bhuuvar-loka). Atmosphere; second of the upper worlds.
bikshu (bhikshu). Religious mendicant, who lives on alms.
bimba. Disc of sun or moon; object compared in comparisons; the original.
bodha. Teaching, understanding.
Brahma. The Creator in the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu (the Preserver), and Siva (the Destroyer).
Brahma-abhyasa (-abhyaasa). Practice of remembering Brahman.
Brahma-ananda (-aanandha). Bliss of realising Brahman.
Brahma-astra (-asthra). Brahma's weapon of infallible destruction.
Brahma-bhaava. Absorbed in Brahman.
Brahma-chaithanya. Supreme consciousness.
brahma-chari (-chaari). Student, celibate, first stage of life of a brahmin in the brahmin caste; one who dwells in God consciousness.
brahma-charya. Path to knowledge of Brahman; state of an unmarried religious student; first stage of life of a brahmin; spiritual studentship.
Brahma-chinthana. Ceaseless thought of Brahman.
Brahma-datta (-dhattha). Ruler of Kampilya.
Brahma-dhyana (-dhyaana). Meditation on Brahman.
Brahmaikyatha. The Godhead.
Brahma-jnana (-jnaana). Knowledge of Brahman.
Brahma-jnani (-jnaani). Knower of Brahman.
Brahma-kanda (-kaanda). Spiritual stage (of life). Also, some texts that are concerned with special features of ceremonial rituals and elaborations of moral codes.
Brahma-loka. Region of Brahma.
Brahma-muhurtha (-muhuurtha). Sacred period during early morning.
Brahman. Also Brahmam. Impersonal Supreme Being, primal source and ultimate goal of all beings. Thus, It is identical to the Atma.
Brahmana (Braahmana). A section of each of the four Vedas dwelling on the meaning and use of mantras and hymns at various sacrifices.
Brahmanda (Brahma-anda). Collection of inner forces of the five elements; macrocosm; the universe; literally, Brahma's egg.
Brahmanda-nirmana (Brahmaandha-nirmaana). Evolution of the universe.
brahmanic (braahmanik). Relating to brahmins.
Brahma-nishta (-nishtha). Steady contemplation of Brahman.
Brahman Mutt. A hermitage.
Brahmanubhava Upanishad (Brahmaanubhava Upanishath). One of the Upanishads.
Brahma-praapthi. Attainment of Brahman, i.e. God-realization or self-realization.
Brahma-priya (-priyaa). Beloved of Brahma.
brahmarshi. Highest sage; sage absorbed in divine consciousness.
Brahma-sakshathkara (-saakshaathkara). Direct perception of Brahman.
Brahma-sira-astra (-shira-asthra). Particular missile of Brahma.
Brahma Sutra (Suuthra). Spiritual text of Vedantic teachings in short maxims, attributed to Badharayana or Vyasa.
Brahma-thathwa (-thatthva). Formless God, Brahman principle.
Brahma-thwa (-thva). State of Brahman.
Brahma-upadesa (-upadhesha). Initiation into the spiritual path of Brahma-realization.
Brahma-vadin (-vaadhin). One who expounds the Brahman.
Brahama-vartha (Brahma-aavartha). Region of Brahma.
Brahma Veda (Vedha). A name for Atharva-veda.
Brahma-vid (Brahma-vith). Knower of Brahman.
Brahma-vid-vara (Brahma-vith-vara). Master knower of Brahman.
Brahma-vid-varishta (Brahma-vith-varishtha). Supreme knower of Brahman.
Brahma-vid-variya (Brahma-vith-vareeya). Excellent knower of Brahman.
Brahma-vidya (-vidhyaa). Spiritual attainment, knowledge of Brahman.
Brahma-yajna. Intense study and observance of the Veda; special daily worship-ritual dedicated to the Supreme.
Brahmic (Braahmik). Of or pertaining to Brahman.
brahmin (braahmana). First of four castes of social order, the priestly or teacher caste; a person belonging to this caste. See caste.
Brighu. A son of Brahma and a great sage. He had two incarnations. The second was when he was reborn from fire at Varuna's sacrificial rite and was brought up by Varuna as his son. Also, One of 10 great sages created by the first Manu.
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (Brihadhaaranyaka Upanishath). The Upanishad that sets forth teachings maintained by Yajnavalkya regarding Brahman.
Brihadratha. Son of Devaratha and father of Mahavira.
brihaspathi. Teacher of the gods.
Brihaspathi. Teacher of the gods for their battle against the demons. Son of the sage Angiras who was a son of Brahma.
brihath. Big, enlarged, gross, high.
Brindavan (Brindhaavan). The forest and pastoral lands where Krishna played in his childhood.
Brindavana-vihara (Brindhaavana-vihaara). Name for Krishna, roamer of Brindavan.
buddha. Awakened, enlightened, wise.
Buddha. Prince Gautama, circa 556­480 BC. Founder of Buddhism after attaining enlightenment.
buddhi. Intellect.
buddhi-balam. Strength of the intellect.
Buddhism. Religion founded by Buddha, which holds that life is full of suffering caused by desire and that the way to end the suffering is to end the birth-death cycle through enlightenment.
Buddhist. Follower of Buddhism.
buddhi-yoga. Yoga of intelligence.
Bujyu (Bhujyu). Royal sage; son of Thugra.
burkha. Veil.


caste. The four castes of social order are: brahmin (priestly or teacher), kshatriya (warrior, protector), vaisya (trader, merchant, agriculturist), and sudra (worker, helper).
Cauvery (Kaaveree). Holy river in the South of India in Rama's time.
chadana (chaadhana). Fostering, shielding, promoting the welfare of.
Chaithanya. Consciousness, intelligence, spirit.
Chaithanya. Fifteenth century Vaishnava mendicant reformer; taught the path of love and devotion to the Avatar of Sri Krishna.
Chaithanya-Brahma. Universal Soul; Supreme Consciousness.
Chaithanyopasana (-paasana). Chaithanya's spiritual ecstacy.
Chaithra. Second spring month.
chakora. Kind of partridge.
chakra. Disk; wheel; a weapon used by Krishna.
chakshu. Eye.
chala-dala (-dhala). Quivering leaf.
Chamaka. Hymn of prayer to Siva found in the Yajur-veda.
champak. East Indian tree in the magnolia family.
chandala (chandaala). Outcast.
Chandas (Chandhas). Poetic metre, which can be set to music; Vedic hymns; guide, shield. Also means pleasant, joyous. Also, a name for Vedas.
Chandogya Upanishad (Chaandhogya Upanishath). One of the ten important Upanishads; a great collection of theological-philosophical-allegorical utterances. Includes glorification of Om, Gayatri, Brahman, tale about Uddalaka instructing son Swethakethu, and Sanatkumara instructing Narada.
chandra (chandhra). Moon.
Chandra (Chandhra). Moon God in charge of crops and medicinal plants.
chandra-loka (chandhra-loka). Region of the moon principle.
Chandramas (Chandhramas). A sage who imparted spiritual knowledge to Sampathi and advised Jatayu to give directions about the way to the monkeys in their search for Sita.
chandrayana (chaandhra-ayana). Lunar system of measurements of time; also, a vow of penance performed during the waxing period of the moon.
chara. Moving.
Charaka. Author of earliest written compendium of ayur-vedic medicine (diagnostic and prognostic); forms basis of Sanskrit medical literature along with Sushrutha samhitha. See Dhanvantari. As Sesha, king of divine serpents, said to have visited earth, noted much sickness, and resolved to incarnate (as Charaka) to alleviate disease.
charana. Feet.
charma. Shield, skin; happiness, bliss.
chathushtaya. Fourfold.
chaya (chaaya). Shade, shadow.
chetana (chethana). Conscious, intelligent, superconscious.
chidabhasa (chidhaabhaasa). "I" awareness conditioned by consciousness.
chidakasa (chidhaakaasha). Atma.
Chidambaram (Chidhambaram). Town 122 miles SSW of Madras, noted for its temple dedicated to Siva in his aspect of "cosmic dancer", Nataraja.
chidatma (chidhaathma). Supreme Consciousness Atma.
chid-bhumi (chidh-bhuumi). Earthly consciousness.
chinmaya. Consisting of pure consciousness.
chinmaya-thathwa (-thatthvaa). Science of ultra-consciousness, pure intelligence.
chinta (chinthaa). Thought, mental agitation.
chintamani (chinthaa-mani). Wish-fulfilling gem that grants its possessor all desires.
chit (chith). Consciousness, knowledge, awareness.
chith-sakthi (-shakthi). Power of universal intelligence or consciousness.
chith-swarupa (-svaruupa). Embodiment of consciousness.
Chitra (Chithra). A bright constellation.
Chitrakethu (Chithrakethu). One of Lakshmana's two sons.
Chitrakuta (Chithrakuuta). Mountain renowned in the Puranas on the banks of the Mandakini river as a place where Rama and Sita lived for some time. Banda district of Uttar Pradesh State in modern India.
Chitrangada (Chithraangadha). One of Lakshmana's two sons.
chittha. Mind stuff, memory, subconscious mind.
Chitthakasa (Chittha-aakaasha). The deflect Atma, the mind stuff.
chittha-spandana (-spandhana). Pulsating subconsciousness.
chittha-suddhi (-shuddhi). Cleansing of the mind, purity of conscience.
Chudala (Chuudhaalaa). Saintly wife of King Sikhidwaja. When he renounced his kingdom, she gave him instruction in Atmic knowledge and brought him back to the throne.
Chyavana (Chayavana). Sage at whose hermitage the queens of Asitha took refuge.
crore. Ten millions; 100 lakhs.


daatha (dhaatha). Giver, bestower, Earth.
Dadhichi (Dhadheechi). Great hero, who gave up his bones to Indra to form a thunderbolt for killing a demon leader.
Dadhimukha (Dhadhimukha). Monkey brother-in-law of Sugriva.
Daitya (Dhaithya). Descendent of Diti; a demon (asura).
Daiva (Dhaiva). Divinity, God.
daiva-amsa (dhaiva-amsha). Divine part or aspect.
Daivam (Dhaivam). Godhead.
daiva-samaana (dhaiva-samaana). Equal to a God.
Daivasandhi (Dhaivasandhi). Son of Susandhi and father of the famous Bharatha.
daivi (dhaivi). Godly, divine.
daivi-sampath (dhaivi-sampath). Divine wealth, divine qualities.
daivi-sampathi (dhaivi-sampatthi). Divine attributes, divine nature.
dakshina (dhakshina). Fee, offering.
dakshina-ayana (dhakshina-ayana). Southward path of the sun.
dakshinagni (dhakshinaagni). Southern fire of altar.
dama (dhama). Control of the outer senses.
Damayanthi (Dhamayanthee). Wife of King Nala of Nishada, who lost his kingdom at dice.
dambha (dhambha). Hypocrisy.
dana (dhaana). Also danam. Charity, giving.
danava (dhaanava). Class of demons, daityas, or asuras; enemies of the Gods (devas). Children of Dhanu and Kasyapa.
danava-manava (danava-maanava). Demonic human.
danda (dhanda). Stick, rod of punishment.
Danda (Dhanda). The son of Ikshvaku. Ikshvaku gave Danda the country between the Himalaya and Vindhya mountains.
danda-chakra (dhanda-chakra). Discus-like weapon.
Dandaka Forest (Dhandaka Forest). Country between the mountains Himalaya and Vindhya. When King Danda violated a maiden, the country was destroyed by her sage father and was known as Dandaka Forest thereafter.
Dandakaranya (Dhandakaaranya). The Dandaka Forest.
dandaneethi. Knowledge of administration of justice.
Dantavakra (Dhanthavakra). The rebirth of Vijaya, doorkeeper of Vishnu, as a demonic king; was killed in battle by Krishna and returned to Vishnu's abode.
danthin (dhaanthin). Self-restrained person, ascetic.
daridra-narayana (dhaaridhra-naaraayana). God as poverty.
darpa (dharpa). Conceit.
darsana (dharshana). Any of the six principal systems of ancient Indian philosophy; insight or vision of truth.
darshan (dharshan). Sight of a holy person.
Daruka (Dhaaruka). Charioteer of Lord Krishna.
dasa (dhaasa). Servant.
Dasara (Dhashara). Festival that celebrates the victory of forces of good over forces that resist man's progress toward light.
Dasaratha (Dhasharatha). Son of Aja and father of Rama; King of Ayodhya; the name means "ten chariot hero".
dasen-driyas (dhashen-dhriyas). The ten organs (of action and perception).
datta (dhattha). Granted, gifted.
Dattatreya (Dhatthaathreya). Sage son of Athri and Anasuya.
daya (dhayaa). Compassion, sympathy.
dayamaya (dhayaamaya). Full of compassion.
dayya (dhayya). Devil.
Deccan. The peninsula of India south of the Narmada river.
deeksha (dheekshaa). Dedication, initiation, consecration.
deepyathi (dheepyathi). Illumine.
deha (dheha). Body.
dehatma (dhehaathma). Body consciousness; exterior "I'.
deha-bhranthi (dheha-bhraanthi). Mistaken identification of self with the body, body delusion.
deha-dharma (dheha-dharma). Duties related to the body.
deha-drishti (dheha-dhrishti). Body's vision.
deha-sanyasa (dheha-sanyaasa). Outward renunciation.
deha-sthithi (dheha-sthithi). Body-awareness, addiction to the body.
deha-thathwa (dheha-thatthva). Body principle.
dehi (dhehi). One who has a body; conscious embodied Self.
desa (dhesha). Region, space, country.
deva (dheva). Deity, celestial being, god.
deva-datta (dheva-dhattha). Vital air that causes yawning.
Devahuthi (Dhevahuuthee). Daughter of Swayambhuva Manu, wife of Kardhama Prajapathi, and mother of sage Kapila.
Devaka (Dhevaka). Son of Ahuka and father of Devaki.
Devakantaka (Dhevakantaka). Mighty warrior of Ravana.
Devaki (Dhevakee). Mother of Krishna.
deva-loka (dheva-loka). World of the gods.
deva-mandir (dheva-mandhir). Temple of God.
Devamedha (Dhevamedha). Son of Kirthiratha and father of Vibudha.
devamsa-sambuthas (dhevaamsha-sambhuuthas). People who represent a divine aspect; partial incarnations of divinity.
deva-puja (dheva-puuja). Worship of God.
Devaratha (Dhevaraatha). Emperor in the Ikshvaku dynasty of ancient Mithila. Son of Sukethu and father of Brihadratha.
Devatha (Dhevatha). God.
devathaatma (dhevathaathma). Having a divine soul.
devatha-jnana (dhevatha-jnaana). Knowledge of the gods.
Deva-vaak (Dheva-vaak). Word of God.
Deva-vaani (Dheva-vaani). Voice of God.
deva-yana (dheva-yaana). Path of light or of the gods, taken by virtuous people after death.
Devendra (Dhevendhra). Name given to the Lord of the gods (devas); Indra or Siva.
devi (dhevee). Goddess.
Devi (Dhevee). Personification of the feminine principle; Goddess of the universe.
Devi Bhagavatham (Dhevee Bhaagavatham). The story of the glory of Universal Divine Mother. One of the Puranas.
Devi Kamadha (Dhevee Kaamadha). Goddess granting desires.
dhaama. Rope, garland.
dhaantha. A person who is self-controlled.
dhadhi. Buttermilk.
Dhadhi. Sea of Buttermilk.
dhairya. Courage.
dhakshina. Fee, offering.
dhana. Wealth, possessions, superior attractions.
dhananjaya. Vital air that fills the body and causes it to grow fat.
Dhananjaya. Name for Arjuna, given to him for providing enormous wealth for the Rajasuya Yaga (sacrifice) performed by his elder brother Dharmaja.
dhanur-dhaari. Archer, bearer of a bow.
Dhanvantari (Dhanvanthari). God who was a preceptor in ayur-veda. Classical Indian medical knowledge is called ayur-veda (science of health and long life). Its two chief traditions are those of Atreya and Dhanvantari.
Dhara (Dharaa). Wife of a vasu (the vasus were a class of gods whose chief was Indra).
dharana (dhaarana). Concentration, fixed attention, one of eight steps in Patanjali's yoga discipline.
dharani (dharanee). Earth element.
dharma. Right action, truth in action, righteousness, morality, virtue, duty, the dictates of God, code of conduct. Dharma defies a simple translation into English.
dharma-ashtakas (-ashthakas). The eightfold dharmas or virtuous actions.
dharma-atma (-aathma). Embodiment of justice.
dharma-chakra. Weapon of justice.
dharma-devatha (-dhevatha). Deity of justice.
Dharmaja. Also Yudhistira. Eldest of the Pandavas. Born to Kunthi by the grace of Yama Dharmaraja, Lord of Death. Named for adherence to dharma. See Mahabharatha.
dharma-karma. Act of duty, virtuous action.
dharma-kartha. Person in charge of a temple.
dharma-kshetra (-kshethra). Abode or field of righteousness.
Dharma-kshetra (-kshethra). Battlefield where the Mahabharatha war was fought between Pandavas and Kauravas. See Mahabharatha.
dharma-narayana (-naaraayana). Personification of dharma.
dharma-pathni (-pathnee). Lawful wife.
dharma-purusha. Moral individual.
Dharmaraja (Dharmaraaja). Name for Yudhistira, eldest of the five Pandava brothers; also, a name for Yama, God of death.
dharma-rakshana. Protection of dharma.
Dharmaranya (Dharmaaranya). City built by Brahma's grandson Asurtharajasa.
dharma-samsthapana (-samsthaapana). Firm establishment of dharma.
Dharma Sastras (Shaasthras). Codes of law and ethics concerning virtuous living.
dharma-sikshana (-shikshana). Instruction in dharma.
dharma-sthapana (-sthaapana). Establishment of dharma.
dharma-sutras (-suuthras). Texts consisting of rules on dharma.
dharma-swarupa (-svaruupa). Embodiment of dharma.
dharma-vratha. Strict adherence to the vow to be righteous in word, thought, and deed.
Dharmavyadha (Dharmavyaadha). Hunter who became a sage.
dharmic (dhaarmik). According to dharma, righteous.
dharmoddharana. The raising of dharma.
dharmya-amritham. Dharmic way to immortality.
dhee. Intelligence.
dheera. Steadfast, courageous, wise person.
Dhenuka. Fierce giant with the body of a donkey; beaten to death by Krishna and Balarama.
dhenu-vratha. Ritual of cow worship.
dhosha. Fault, crime, sin, offense, evil.
dhothi. Cloth worn around the waist; skirt.
dhrik. Vision, seer or perception.
Dhrishtadyumna (Dhrishthadhyumna). Droupadi's brother.
Dhrishtakethu. Son of Sudrithi and father of Haryasva.
Dhritharashtra (Dhritharaashthra). Father of Kauravas; holder of ruling power.
dhrithi. Steadfast determination, courage.
dhuma (dhuuma). Smoke.
dhuma-adi-marga (dhuuma-aadhi-maarga). Smoke-filled path of the Manes; opaque path, as distinguished from the path of light.
Dhumakethu (Dhuumakethu). One of Ravana's messengers. Also, a name for Agni, the God of Fire (with the 'flag' of smoke).
Dhumraksha (Dhuumraaksha). General in Ravana's army.
Dhundhumara (Dhundhumaara). Son of Trisanku and father of Yuvanaswa.
dhurbhiksha. Distress, want, dearth, famine.
Dhurdhara. A monkey in Rama's army.
dhush-karma. Bad actions.
dhussanga. Evil company.
dhyana (dhyaana). Meditation.
dhyana-marga (dhyaana-maarga). Path of meditation.
dhyana-rupa (dhyaana-ruupa). Form of meditation.
dhyana-yoga (dhyaana-yoga). Yoga of meditation.
dhyani (dhyaani). Meditator.
Dilipa (Dhileepa). Son of Amsumanta. He became king of the solar dynasty and offered his life to a lion who was about to kill the sacred cow Nandini.
Diti (Dhithi). Daughter of Dhaksha; wife of Kasyapa.
divi (dhivi). Heaven; divine light.
divya-chakshu (dhivya-chakshu). Divine eye.
divya-thwam (dhivya-thvam). Divine nature.
Divyatma (Dhivyaathma). Divine Atma; Universal Absolute.
drashta (dhrashta). See-er; visionary.
drashtum (dhrashtum). Visualising.
dravya (dhravya). Material, matter, thing.
dravya-yajna (dhravya-yajna). Ritual sacrifice involving material objects.
drishti (dhrishti). Vision, seeing, intelligence.
drisya (dhrishya). That which is perceived by the senses; the seen.
Drona (Dhrona). Teacher of archery and war tactics for the Pandavas and Kauravas.
Drona (Dhrona) Mountain. Himalaya mountain where Hanuman went, to Sanjivi hill, to get a life-saving drug for Lakshmana.
Dronacharya (Dhronaachaarya). Drona, the teacher.
Droupadi (Dhraupadhee). Wife of Pandavas. See Mahabharatha.
Drupada (Dhrupadha). King of Panchala (Punjab) and father of Droupadi.
Druva (Dhruva). Grandson of Brahma and son of Uttanapadha; as a child, he performed severe penance and attained self-renunciation.
dukha (dhukha). Grief, sorrow, misery, pain.
dukha nivritti (dhukha nivritthi). Absence of grief.
Dumraswa (Dhuumraashva). King of Ikshvaku dynasty; father of Sanjaya.
Dundubhi (Dhundhubhi). A terrible demon, brother of Mayavi.
Durdhara (Dhurdhara). One of the monkeys who wanted to jump over the ocean to get to Lanka.
Durga (Dhurgaa). Goddess of the universe; mother earth; daughter of Himaval and wife of Siva.
durmathi (dhurmathee). Person with perverted, polluted intelligence.
Durvasa (Dhuurvaasa). Son of Athri and Anasuya; known for quick temper and severe curses with an eventually constructive effect of driving home hard lessons of discipline and virtuousness. He granted boons to Kunthi, which resulted in the births of Karna and the Pandavas.
Duryodhana (Dhuryodhana). Chief (and eldest) of the evil-minded sons of Dhritharashtra.
Dushana (Dhuushana). A demon chieftain in Ravana's tribe.
dussanga. Company of the wicked.
Dussasana (Dhusshaasana). Infamous second son of Dhritharashtra and younger brother of Duryodhana.
dwaitha (dhvaitha). Dualism; separation of God and the created universe.
dwaithin (dhvaithin). Dualist, one who believe in dualism or dwaitha.
dwaithopasana (dhvaithopaasana). Path of dualism.
Dwaja (Dhvaja). A monkey general.
dwanda-atheetha (dhvandha-atheetha). Beyond duality or pair of opposites like heat-cold.
dwandwa-bhava (dhvandhva-bhaava). Dual consciousness.
Dwapara-yuga (Dhvaapara yuga). Third in the cycle of four ages. See yuga.
Dwaraka (Dhvaarakaa). Capital of Krishna. After Krishna's death the city was swept over by the sea; researchers believe it was situated in the sea just west of Gujarat.
Dwaraka-vasa (Dhvaarakaa-vasa). Name for Krishna, resident of the city of Dwaraka.
dwesha (dhvesha). Hatred.
dwija (dhvija). Twice born.
dwipa (dhveepa). Island; one of seven divisions of the terrestial world.
Dwivida (Dhvividha). A monkey general in Rama's army.
dyu-loka (dhyu-loka). The heavenly world.


eershya. Envy, wishing others to have one's own grief.
eka-bhakthi. One-pointed devotion.
Ekadasi (Ekaadhashi). Eleventh day of fortnight of lunar month considered sacred for fasting.
ekagratha (ekaagratha). One-pointedness of mind.
Ekalavya. Son of the king of foresters; refused as a student by Drona because he was a labourer.
ekantha-mukthi (ekaantha-mukthi). Absolute liberation.
ekantha-vasam (ekaantha-vaasam). Dwelling in solitude.


Fakir (Fakir). A person who is poor but "spiritually elevated". Shirdi Sai Baba is considered as Fakir.


Gaadhi. Son of Kusanabha and father of Viswamitra.
Gaana-veda (Ghaana-vedha). Bell Veda, Name for the Sama-veda.
Gaargya. Souryayani, a grandson of Surya and born in the family of Garga.
Gaayas. Indra, Vishnu, Soma, and the Aswins.
gada (gadha). Mace.
Gajendra (Gajendhra). Elephant. In Sathya Sai Speaks III 40, Sai Baba mentions that the Gajendra or elephant (man) who was caught by the alligator (egotism) while frolicking in the lake (the objective world) was saved by the Lord (spiritual practices).
Ganapathi. Ganesha, head of an assemblage, Siva's elder son.
gandha. Smell, fragrance.
Gandhamadana (Gandhamaadhana). Mountain range. A holy mountain east of the Himalayas.
Gandhari (Gaandhaaree). Virtuous wife of Dhritharashtra, mother of Kauravas.
Gandharvas. Celestial musicians, a class of demigods; born to the sage Kasyapa and wife Arishta.
Gandhi. Mohandas Karamachand Gandhi. Famed for his peaceful opposition to British rule in India and his part in achieving India's independence.
Gandiva (Gaandeeva). Arjuna's bow.
Ganga (Gangaa). The 1560-mile-long Ganges river; starts in the Himalayas and flows generally east into the Bay of Bengal; the most sacred river of India.
ganja. Marijuana.
garbha. Womb.
Garga. Elderly sage son of Bharadwaja.
Garga. Family priest of the family of Nanda (the foster-father of Krishna).
Gargi (Gaargee). Celebrated female sage Vachaknavi, born in the family of Garga.
Garuda. Celestial bird, white-crested eagle, king of the feathered race, vehicle for Lord Vishnu.
Garuda Purana (Puurana). Seventeenth Purana.
gatha-prajna. Lacking wisdom.
Gauda. Central Bengal, farming country.
gauna. Derived, secondary.
gauna-bhakthi. Indirect or secondary devotion (through rituals).
gaura. Saffron colour.
Gauranga (Gauraanga). Name for Chaithanya, a great saint.
Gauri (Gauree). Siva's consort Parvathi.
Gautama (Gauthama). Great sage who brought the Godavari River to earth for the benefit of mankind.
Gautama (Gauthama). Author of Nyaya system of philosophy and logical system.
Gautama (Gauthama). Father of Nachiketas; also known as Yajnasravas.
Gavaksha (Gavaaksha). A monkey king and great warrior, who helped Rama.
gayas (gayaas). Vital airs.
Gayatri Devi (Gaayathree Dhevee). Presiding deity of the Gayatri mantra.
Gayatri mantra (Gaayathree mantra). Ancient Vedic prayer to awaken the intelligence and lead to enlightenment.
ghana. Heavy, great.
ghanta. Bell, gong.
ghat (ghaat). Steps leading to river's edge on hilly terrain.
ghata. Pot.
ghrana (ghraana). Nose.
Girivraja. City prominent in the Puranas; built by Brahma's grandson Vasu. Girivraja means "collection of hills".
Gita (Geetha). Literally, song. Short for Bhagavad Gita, the Song of God.
Gita-bhavanam (Geetha-bhavanam). Mansion of Gita.
Githopasana (Geethopaasana). Adoring God as the Master who teaches the Gita that reveals the way.
glaani. Decline, weakening.
Godavari (Godhaavaree). Sacred river of south India; cuts across central south India, flowing from west to east.
Gogra (Goghra). River in ancient India; the Thamasa is its tributary.
go-hathya. Bovicide.
Gokarna. Sacred place extolled in the Puranas; situated on the extreme north of Kerala.
Gokula. Village of cowherds on the banks of Yamuna wherein Nanda and Krishna resided.
Go-loka. Vishnu's heaven.
Gomathi. Celebrated river of puranic times; tributary of the Ganga river.
gopa. Herdsman.
Gopala (Gopaala). Cowherd boy. A name for Lord Krishna.
Gopatha Brahmana (Braahmana). One of the Brahmana texts of the Vedas.
gopi (gopee). Cowherd maiden.
gopi-vallabha (gopee-vallabha). Beloved of the gopis.
gopura. Decorated gate to the temple.
gothra. Family, race, lineage.
Gouranga (Gouraanga). Name for Chaithanya.
Govardhana hill. Mountain lifted by Krishna.
govinda. Guardian (e.g. of cows or individuals)
Govinda (Govindha). Name for Krishna.
Gowdeyopasana (Gaudheyopasana). Gowdha form of worship, worshipping Radha-Krishna.
grantha. Scriptural text or book.
Granth Saheb (Saaheb). Sacred scriptural text of the Sikhs.
gruha (gruha). A house is a building in which people live.
Grihalakshmi (Grihalakshmee, Gruhalakshmi). Goddess of the home.
grihapathi (gruhapathi). Master of the home.
grihastha (gruhastha). Householder, one of the four stages of life (asramas).
grihastha-dharma. Dharma of householder.
grihini (grihinee, gruhini). Housewife.
grihitha Acceptor. The grihitha is the knower and by that act of knowing (the Aathmasvaruupa), he has undergone modification.
guda. Sugar.
gudaakesa (gudaakesha). Master of senses; thick-haired (Arjuna). A person who has overcome sloth, sleep, and ignorance.
guha. Cave.
Guha. King of the country of Nishadas on banks of the river Ganga.
guhya. Genitals.
guna. Quality, characteristic. The qualities of sathwa, rajas, and thamas (serenity, passion, ignorance) are general universal characteristics of all kinds of mental tendencies and actions/thoughts, which are prompted by specific kinds and mixtures of these three qualities. For example, sathwic food is health-giving, strength-giving and delightful; rajasic food is spicy, sour, or salty and brings on diseases; and thamasic food is impure, old, stale, tasteless, or rotten.
guna-saamya-avastha. State of perfect balance of qualities.
guna-swarupa (-svaruupa). Embodiment of quality.
guru. Preceptor, teacher, guide to spiritual liberation.
Guru-gita (-geethaa). Section of the Skanda Purana, the epic story of Skanda.
guruji. Respected preceptor.
guru-kula. Spiritual teacher's house, where pupils were educated.
guru-putra (-puthra). Son of guru.


Haihayas. Race said to have been descendents of Yadu.
halahala (halaahala). A deadly poison, produced by gods and demons at the churning of the ocean.
hamsa. Swan.
Hamsa. Supreme Spirit typified by the pure white colour of the swan.
Hanuman (Hanumaan). Son of the Wind God and a great ``devotee servant'' of Rama. He was part man, part monkey.
harathi (haarathi). Ritual worship in which lights are waved; also called Aarathi.
Hari. God; destroyer of sins; name for Vishnu.
Haridwar (Haridhvaara). Celebrated bathing place on the river Ganga.
Harini (Harinee). Heavenly nymph who was incited by Indra to tempt sage Thrinabindu.
Hariparayana (Haripaaraayana). A person completely devoted to God.
Hari-prasadha (-prasaadha). Offerings blessed by God (Hari).
Harischandra (Harishchandhra). King of the solar dynasty; very renowned for his unique truthfulness and integrity. Sold himself and family for the sake of truth.
Haryasva (Haryashwa). Son of Dhrishtakethu and father of Maru.
Hasthinapura (Hasthinaapura). Capital city of the Pandavas (and earlier the Kauravas).
hatha-yoga. The yoga of body postures.
havis. Sacred offering into the ritual fire place.
Hayagriva (Hayagreeva). An incarnation of Vishnu, who had the form of a horse above the neck. Haya-griva means "horse-headed".
Hema (Hemaa). A friend of Swayamprabha.
Hemachandra (Hemachandhra). Son of Ikshvaku; father of Suchandra.
hemantha. Winter.
hethu. Origin, cause.
Himalayas (Himaalayas). Sacred mountains of northern India.
Himavaan. Name for Himalayas; also, the demigod of the Himalayas.
himsa. Violence.
Hindu (Hindhu). Person who adheres to Hinduism, the religion based on the Vedas. Name originally applied by foreign invaders to inhabitants of Indus (Sindhu) river valley.
Hiranyagarbha. Cosmic divine mind; cosmic womb; golden egg first created by Brahman, from which all creation issued.
Hiranyakasipu (Hiranyakashipu). A demonic person who forbade mention of Vishnu's name, wicked father of Prahlada, who was a great devotee of the Lord; killed by the man-lion Narashimha, an Avatar of Vishnu.
Hiranyaksha (Hiranyaaksha). Wicked brother of Hiranyakasipu; killed by the wild boar Avatar of Vishnu.
Hladini (Hlaadhinee). Tributary of the Ganga flowing eastward.
homa. Oblation to the gods, performed by offering ghee (clarified butter) on the sacred fire.
hotha. Reciter of prayers (a role in a sacrifical rite or yajna).
hridaya (hridhaaya). Heart.
hridaya-apahari (hridhaya-apahaari). Stealer of hearts.
hridayakasa (hridhayaakaasha). Firmanent of the heart.
hridaya-kshetra (hridhaya-kshethra). Heart field.
hridaya-pushpa (hridhaya-pushpa). Heart-lotus.
Hrishika (Hrisheeka). A great sage who kept Vishnu's bow.
Hriswarupa (Hrishvaruupa). Noble father of King Janaka.


iccha (icchaa). Wish, desire.
iccha-sakthi (icchaa-shakthi). Will power.
ida-naadi-marga (-maarga). Path of the psychic nerve; current flowing through the left nostril; the cooling lunar nerve, as compared to the heating solar nerve, naadi.
idam (idham). This.
ikshu. Sugar cane.
Ikshu. Sea of sugar cane.
Ikshumathi. River that flows near Kurukshetra, site of the famous battle in the Mahabharatha; Mithila lies on its banks.
Ikshvaku (Ikshvaaku). Son of Manu and father of Kukshi; first king of Ayodhya and ancestor of Rama's dynasty.
Indra (Indhra). Lord of the devas (celestials).
Indra-astra (Indra-asthra). Indra's missile.
indra-jala (indhra-jaala). Magician's art, deception.
Indrajit (Indhrajith). Conqueror of Indra; Meghanada.
Indraprastha (Indhraprastha). City of residence of the Pandava brothers.
indriya (indhriya). Sense.
indriya-moha (indhriya-moha). Sublimation of the senses.
indriya-nigraha (indhriya-nigraha). Control of the senses.
Indumathi (Indhumathee). Wife of King Aja; sister of Bhojaraja of Magadha.
Indus. The river Sindhu; see Sindhu.
Iravathi (Iravathee). Daughter of Uttara and wife of Parikshith.
Isa (Eesha). Supreme, Lord.
Isanukatha (Eeshaanukatha). Glories of God (Isa).
Isa Upanishad. See Isavasya Upanishad.
Isavasya Upanishad (Eeshaavaasya Upanishath). One of the ten important Upanishads; it deals with supreme truth of liberation and its attainment.
ishta. Also ishtam. Beloved, cherished, desired.
Ishta-devatha (-dhevatha). Chosen deity.
Iswara (Eeshvara). Lord, God, Supreme Being; name for Siva.
Iswara-pranidhana (Eeshvara-pranidhaana). Surrender to the Lord.
Iswara-sthana (Eeshvara-sthaana). The Changeless Entity.
Iswariya-karma (Eeshvareeya-karma). Action for the Lord, by the Lord.
iswarya (eeshvarya). Fullest splendour of power.
ithihasa (ithihaasa). Historical legend, epic, traditional account of former events.


jaagrath. Waking state.
jaagrath-avastha. Waking state.
jaagrath-swapna (-svapna). Wakeful-dreamy.
Jabali (Jaabaali). A sage, son of Viswamitra.
jada. Inert matter.
jagadguru (jagadhguru). Preceptor of the world.
jagadisa (jagadheesha). Lord of the cosmos or world.
Jagadiswara (Jagadheeshvara). Lord of the cosmos, or world.
jagath. Cosmos, world of change, creation.
jagath-guru. Preceptor of the world.
Jahnavi (Jaahnavee). The river Ganga (Ganges).
jai. Hurrah, victory.
Jaimini. Author of Purva Mimamsa, or the portion relating to ritual action.
Jain. Adherent of Jainism, Indian religion traceable to Mahavira of the 6th century B.C.
Jainopasana (Jainopaasana). Jain mode of worship.
jala. Water.
jala-panchakas. Five subtlenesses that the water element became.
jala-thathwa (-thatthva). Water element or principle.
jama. Derived from "yama (control of the inner senses)".
Jamadagni (Jamadhagni). Hrishika's hermit son and Parasurama's father.
Jambavan (Jaambavaan). Also Jaambavantha. Old monkey leader of extraordinary might; the ruler of the bears.
jana-balam. Strength of people.
Janaka. A self-realized king; Sita's father and Rama's father-in-law. His ancestor was Nimi, a great emperor.
Janaki (Jaanakee). Janaka's daughter Sita.
Jana-loka. World of good men.
Janamejaya. Son of Parikshith and Iravathi.
jangama. The moving.
janma. Birth, existence.
janna. Derived from "yajna (sacrifice)".
japa. Soft prayer or repetition of the name of God.
jaraa. Senility.
Jarasandha (Jaraasandha). King of Magadha and father-in-law of Kamsa; enemy of Krishna.
jarayuja (jaraayuja). Mammals.
Jatayu (Jataayu). A famous eagle, whose wings were scorched when he flew too close to the sun. He tried to rescue Sita, and he played a role in Rama's fight against the demons.
jatha-karma (jaatha-karma). Rite of first cleansing of a newborn infant.
jathi (jaathi). Race, birth.
Jayadeva (Jayadheva). Sanskrit poet; wrote the Gita Govinda, which describes the early life of Krishna.
Jayanta (Jayantha). Son of Indra. Transformed himself into a crow and pecked at Sita's feet, incurring Rama's wrath.
Jesus Christ. Founder of Christian religion; death on cross symbolizes death of the ego.
jihva. Tongue.
jijnaasa. Yearning to know.
jijnasu (jijnaasu). Seeker of wisdom, inquirer.
jiva (jeeva). Individual soul with ego.
jiva-bhava (jeeva-bhaava). Body-oriented feeling.
jiva-branthi (jeeva-bhraanthi). Mistaken identification with the individual.
jiva-loka (jeeva-loka). World of the living.
jivana-paramavadhi (jeevana-paramaavadhi). Goal of life.
jivana-upadhi (jeevana-upaadhi). Means for living.
jivan-muktha (jeevan-muktha). One who is liberated in this life.
jivan-mukthi (jeevan-mukthi). Liberation while alive.
jiva-rupa (jeeva-ruupa). Individual body.
jiva-thathwa (jeeva-thatthva). Life principle.
jivatma (jeeva-aathma). Soul or true Self, at the individual level.
jivatwa-buddhi (jeevathva-buddhi). Body attachment; identification with the body.
jivi (jeevi). Individual or soul.
jnana (jnaana). Spiritual knowledge, experiential wisdom.
jnana-abhyasa (jnaana-abhyaasa). Cultivation of spiritual wisdom.
jnana-bhaskara (jnaana-bhaaskara). Sun of spiritual wisdom.
jnana-drishti (jnaana-dhrishthi). Wisdom eye.
Jnana-kanda (Jnaana-kaanda). Portion of the Vedas that deals with knowledge of Brahman through the path of spiritual wisdom or discriminative knowledge.
jnana-marga (jnaana-maarga). Path of spiritual wisdom.
jnana-nethra (jnaana-nethra). Eye of spiritual wisdom.
jnana-nishta (jnaana-nishtha). Intent on acquiring spiritual wisdom.
jnana-siddhi (jnaana-siddhi). Perfection in spiritual wisdom.
jnana-swarupa (jnaana-svaruupa). The embodiment of spiritual wisdom.
jnana-yajna (jnaana-yajna). Sacrifice involving spiritual wisdom.
jnana-yoga (jnaana-yoga). Path of inner contemplation, spiritual wisdom.
jnana-yogi (jnaana-yogi). Yogi on the path of spiritual wisdom.
jnanen-driyas (jnaanen-dhriyas). Five organs of perception: eye, ear, tongue, nose, and skin; associated with five senses of perception: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch.
jnani (jnaani). Spiritually wise man, realized soul.
jnatha (jnaatha). Knower.
jnatum (jnaathum). Knowing.
jneya. That which is known, the object of knowledge.
Jyeshtha. Lunar mansion of Indra.
jyothi. Divine light.
jyothir-veda (jyothir-vedha). Science of planets and stars and their influence on humans; astrology.
jyothi-swarupa (-svaruupa). Illumination itself.


kaanda. Canto, chapter; stalk, water.
kaanuka. Gift.
Kabanda (Kabandha). A mountain-sized demon who attacked Rama and Lakshmana.
Kabandi Kathyayana (Kabhaandhi Kaathyaayana). Descendent of the great sage Kathya and disciple of Pippalada.
Kabir (Kabeer). Also Kabirdas. 15th century mystic poet; preached equality before God of all creatures and the religion of love/devotion (bhakthi), which was aimed at the union of the soul with God. Born to a Muslim weaver family of Benares.
Kachchapa. Son of Viswamitra.
Kaika (Kaikaa). Same as Kaikeyi. A princess of Kekaya (Kashmir), third wife of Dasaratha, and mother of Bharatha.
Kaikeyi (Kaikayee). Same as Kaika.
Kailas (Kailaasa). Siva's mountain abode; Bhagiratha performed penance here to bring down the river Ganga.
Kaitabha. Born from ear-wax of Vishnu; brother of Madhu.
kaivalya. Absolute oneness, final beatitude.
kaivalya-mukthi. Absolute unity with the Supreme; final emancipation.
Kaivalya Upanishad (Upanishath). A Upanishad; it portrays the state of consciousness of one's absolute identity with God.
Kakuthstha. King of the Ikshvaku dynasty; son of Somadatta; father of Anenas.
kala. Fragment.
kala (kaala). Time, death (yama).
Kala (Kaala). Yama; the God of death, time.
kala-chakra (kaala-chakra). Divine weapon of time.
kala-naada (kalaa-naadha). Cuckoo sound.
Kalanemi (Kaalanemi). Demon minister of Ravana, who advised him to take refuge in Rama.
Kalayavana (Kaalayavana). Wicked king, who secured boon from Siva that no Yadava could kill him. In combat with Krishna, was tricked into challenging Muchukunda who destroyed him.
kali. Wickedness, black, iron.
Kali (Kaali). Mother goddess associated with death.
Kalidasa (Kalidhaasa). Sanskrit dramatist and poet ca 5th century A.D.
Kalinga. A pool of poisoned waters of the Yamuna where the hydraheaded serpent King Kaliya resided.
Kali-purusha. Personification of the kali-yuga, the evil age.
Kaliya (Kaaliya). Wicked serpent killed by Krishna.
Kali-yuga. Fourth in the cycle of four eras, our present age, the dark, evil age; characterized by discord and wrong action. See yuga.
Kalki. Tenth Avatar of Vishnu during the Kali-yuga.
kalpa. Age; a day of Brahma, a period of 4,320,000,000 years.
Kalpataru (Kalpatharu). Heavenly wish-fulfilling tree in Indra's paradise.
kalpa-vriksha. Wish-fulfilling tree.
kalyaana mantapa (kalyaana mantapa). Wedding hall.
kama (kaama). Desire, lust, worldly fulfillment; one of four goals of humans.
Kamada (Kaamadhaa). A goddess, fulfiller of desires.
Kamadhenu (Kaama-dhenu). Divine cow granting all wishes.
kamandalu. Water pot of ascetics.
Kambhoja (Kaambhoja). King who fought for Duryodhana; killed by Krishna.
Kampilya (Kaampilya). A city, ruled by Brahmadatta.
Kamsa. Brother of Krishna's mother, Devaki, and killer of her first six sons.
kamya (kaamya). Desirable.
kamya-karma (kaamya-karma). Acts done to gain the fruits thereof.
Kanaada (Kanaadha). Founder of the Vaiseshika school of philosophy.
kanda (khaanda). Section, chapter, canto, expanse of water, sugar cane.
kanjee. Rice gruel.
Kanya-kumari (Kanyaa-kumaari). Pilgrimage centre: the southernmost tip of the Indian peninsula, on the Indian Ocean.
Kapila. Also Kapilamaharshi. Ancient sage-philosopher; prime exponent of the one of the six systems of philosophy known as Saankhya, which emphasizes duality of spirit and nature.
karana (kaarana). Causal or cause.
karana. Sense organ.
Kardama Prajapathi (Kardhama Prajaapathi). Grandson of Brahma and husband of Devahuthi.
karika (kaarika). Verse.
karma. (a) Activity, action, work, duty. (b) Fate; consequences of acts done in this life and past lives.
karma-atheetha. Beyond karma.
karma-brashta (-bhrashtha). Action without restraint or control; fallen or sinful person.
karma-bhumi (-bhuumi). Land of karma, Godward-directed activity; India.
karma-deha (-dheha). Body acquired as a result of action.
Karma-kanda (-kaanda). The section of the Vedas dwelling mainly on rituals; the samhithas and the Brahmana of the Vedas.
karma-kshetra (-kshethra). Field of activity.
karma-marga (-maarga). Path of renunciation of the fruit of action.
karma-mukthi. Progressive liberation.
karma-nishta (-nishtha). Dedicated action.
Karma phala-pradhaatha (-pradaatha). Giver of the fruit of activity.
karma-siddhi. Success in action.
karma-yoga. Yoga of action.
karma-yogi. Yogi who dedicates his actions to God.
karmen-driyas (-dhriyas). Organs of action: larynx, hands, feet, anus, sex organs.
karmic (kaarmik). Of or pertaining to karma.
Karna. Half-brother of the Pandavas. Valiant but unfortunate eldest son of Kunthi by the Sun deity. Ally of the Kauravas in the war with Pandavas.
Karosa (Karuusha). Region in central India.
kartha. Doer, subject of action.
Karthaviryarjuna (Kaartha-veerya-arjuna). Renowned king of the Hehaya dynasty; brought down by Parasurama because of his pride.
karthavya-karma. Bounden duty.
Karthika (Kaartheeka). October-November.
karthrithwa (karthrithva). Doership, agency of action.
karuna (karunaa). Compassion for the distressed.
karya (kaarya). Effect, product.
Kasi (Kaashee). Benares, and now, Varanasi. One of the oldest and most venerated sacred cities in India.
kasmalam (kashmalam). Faintheartedness, impurity.
Kasyapa (Kashyapa). Father of all living creatures; son of Marichi and grandson of Brahma.
Kasyapa-prajapathi (Kashyapa-prajaapathi). Chief of the progenitors; son of Brahma. All living beings took their origin from Kasyapa.
kataka. Tree whose nut purifies water.
Katha Saakha (Kattha Shaakhaa). A branch of the Black Yajur-veda.
katham. How.
Katha Upanishad (Kattha Upanishath). Also Katthopanishath). One of the ten most important and popular Upanishads because of its clarity and brevity in expressing mystic truths; contains famous dialogue between Nachiketas and Yama, God of death.
Katthopanishad. See Katha Upanishad.
Kathyayana (Kaathyaayana). See Kabandi Katyayana.
Katyayani (Kaathyaayanee). One of Yajnavalkya's two wives.
Kauntheya. Son of Kunthi (who is Arjuna's mother).
Kauravas. Family that fought Pandavas. See Mahabharatha.
Kausalya. A sage, son of Ashvala, from the Aashvalaayana school.
Kausalya (Kausalyaa). Daughter of the King of Kosala, first wife of Dasaratha, and mother of Rama.
Kausambi (Kaushaambi). City built by Brahma's grandson Kusamba.
Kausika (Kaushika). Name for Viswamitra, since he was Kusa's son.
Kausiki (Kaushiki). Now the modern river of Kosi in Bihar. Viswamitra's hermitage stood on its bank.
Kautsu (Kauthsu). Student-hermit disciple of Varathanthu.
kavi. Poet; seer of the future.
kaya (kaaya). Body, feeling, temperament.
kaya-suddhi (kaaya-shuddhi). Body purification.
Kekaya. Kingdom in ancient India; birthplace of Kaika, wife of Dasaratha; modern Kashmir.
Kenopanishad (Kenopanishath). See Kena Upanishath.
Kena Upanishad (Upanishath). One of the ten most important Upanishads; it is divided into two parts: the first expounds the unknowability of the Brahman without attributes, the second the relation of Brahman to the Vedic gods.
Kesari (Keshari). A monkey-general in Rama's army.
Kesava (Keshava). "Slayer of the demon Kesi"; a name for Krishna.
Kesi (Keshi). Demon follower of Kamsa. Krishna got the name Kesava for killing him.
Kesini (Keshinee). Daughter of the king of Vidarbha and wife of Sagara.
kethu. Flag.
Kethu. A demon. Along with Rahu, an inauspicious planet.
Kethumala (Kethumaala). Holy place in Jambudwipa.
kaanda (khaanda). Section, chapter.
Khali. A great sage.
khanda. Part; continent.
Khandava (Khaandava) Forest inhabited by many demons, which was consumed by Agni, the fire god.
Khara. A giant demon chieftain in Ravana's tribe.
Khatvanga (Khatvaanga). King in the Solar Dynasty; ancestor of Rama.
khila. Appendix.
Khila Kanda (Kaanda). Third section of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.
Kimpurusha. A region of Bharath south of Hemakuta where Hanuman spent his last days worshipping Lord Rama.
kini-naada (-naadha). Insect sound.
kinkini (kinkinee). Small bell.
Kinnara. Sect of gods all of whom hold lutes in their hands.
Kirathas. Mountain tribesmen.
kirtana (keerthana). Recital of the name of God.
kirtanam (keerthanam). Singing bhajans.
Kirthiratha (Keerthiratha). Son of Pratheendhaka and father of Deva- medha.
Kirthiratha (Keerthiratha). Son of Vibudha and father of Maharoma.
Kishkindha. Ancient kingdom of monkeys in Southern India.
kodanda (kodhanda). Bow.
Kodanda (Kodhanda). Bow. Particular kind of bow; Rama's bow.
Koham. Who am I.
kopa. Anger.
Koran. Holy text of the Muslims accepted as revelations from the prophet Mohammed; divinely authorized basis for the regulations of the Islamic world.
kosa (kosha). Sheath.
Kosala. Wealthy country on the banks of the Sarayu river and the people inhabiting it; Dasaratha's wife, Kausalya, came from Kosala.
krama-mukthi. Liberation in stages, progressive emancipation.
krantha-dharsi (kraantha-dharshi). Seeing the next step; person with intuitive knowledge of the future; seer.
krathu. Sacrifice.
krauncha. Poison.
Kripa. Also Kripacharya. Earlier fought against Pandavas; later appointed as advisor to King Parikshith.
kripa-sagara (kripaa-saagara). Ocean of mercy.
kripayaa-vishtham. Overwhelmed by pity.
krishna. Black.
Krishna. A holy river.
Krishna. The Avatar of Vishnu in the Dwapara-yuga, prior to the present Kali-yuga.
Krishna-arpanam. Dedication to God.
Krishna-chandra (-chandhra). Krishna-moon; name for Krishna.
krishna-marga (-maarga). Path of the manes; dark path, as distinguished from the path of light.
krishna-paksha. Dark half of month, when moon is diminishing.
Krishna-rasa. Essence of Krishna.
Krishna Yajur-veda (Yaajur-vedha). "Black" Yajur-veda, a recension of the Yajur-veda, promoted by Veda Vyasa.
Kritha-yuga. First age of man, Golden age of truth. See yuga.
Krithya (Krithyaa). Demoness or demon to whom sacrifices are offered for destructive purposes. Created by the black arts.
kriya (kriyaa). Action, activity, will.
krodha. Anger.
krosha. Cry, shout.
krukara. Vital air that causes sneezing.
kshama (kshamaa). Patience, fortitude, forgiveness.
kshanthi (kshaanthi). Synonym for kshama.
kshara. Perishable; the destructible world.
kshatham. Sorrow, hurt, wound.
kshatriya (kshathriya). Protector, warrior; see Caste.
kshaya. Decline, loss, inertia; destruction.
kshema. Welfare, happiness.
kshetra (kshethra). Field or life.
kshetra-jna (kshethra-jna). Knower of the truth of life.
kshetra-palaka (kshethra-paalaka). Guardian of fields, body, or holy place.
kshira (ksheera). Milk.
Kshira (Ksheera). Sea of milk.
kshira-sagara (Ksheera-saagara). Ocean of milk.
kshudha. Hunger.
Kubera. God of riches; his father was Vishravas and his younger half brother was Ravana.
Kuchela. A poor brahmin classmate of Krishna.
ku-darshan (-dharshan). Distorted vision, false vision.
Kukshi. Son of Ikshvaku and father of Vikukshi.
Kumara (Kumaara). Son of Siva and Parvathi, also called Skanda, Karthikeya.
kumara-raja (kumaara-raaja). Heir apparent.
Kumbha. Kumbhakarna's son.
kumbhaka. Retention of air, holding the breath.
Kumbhakarna. Younger brother of Ravana, who slept for six months at a time.
Kumbhinasa (Kumbheenasa). Demonic mother of Lavana.
kumkum. Auspicious mark of vermillion placed on forehead.
Kumuda (Kumudha). Monkey-general in Rama's army.
kundalini. Spiritual power located at the base of the spine.
Kunthi (Kunthee). Also Kunthi Devi. Mother of Pandavas, wife of King Pandu (the younger brother of emperor Dhritharashtra), and sister of Krishna's father (Vasudeva).
kurma (kuurma). Vital air that causes blinking.
Kurma (Kuurma). Second incarnation of Vishnu, as a Tortoise.
Kuru. The dynasty of kings of Hasthinapura.
kuru-kshetra (kshethra). Field of battle or action.
Kuru-kshetra (-kshethra). Battlefield where the Pandavas and Kauravas fought.
Kuru-Panchala (-Paanchaala). Combined name for Panchala, Punjab.
Kusa (Kusha). Descendent of Brahma and father of Kusamba, Kusanabha, Asurtha-rajasa, and Vasu.
Kusa (Kusha). One of a pair of twin sons of Rama and Sita.
Kusamba (Kushaamba). Son of Kasu and grandson of Brahma.
Kusanabha (Kushanaabha). Son of Kusa and grandson of Brahma. Father of 100 daughters given in marriage to Brahmadatta.
Kusaplava (Kushaplava). Holy place. One who bathes and spends 3 nights there will derive the benefits of a horse sacrifice (aswamedha).
kusha. Grass used in Vedic ritual ceremonies.
Kushadwaja (Kushadhvaja). Brother of King Janaka; King of Sankasya.
Kutastha (Kuutastha). Changeless; the never changing entity is Atma or Brahman.
ku-tharka. Crooked reasoning, false logic.
Kuvalayapida (Kuvalayaapeeda). Fierce elephant of Kamsa, killed by Krishna.


laddhu. Sweet in the shape of sphere.
laghu-pranayama (-praanaayaama). Simplified system of breath control.
lajja (lajjaa). Modesty.
lakh. Hundred thousand.
lakshana. Characteristic, sign, aspect.
Lakshmana. Brother of Rama and son of Sumitra; represents intellect.
Lakshmi (Lakshmee). Consort of Vishnu, goddess of wealth.
Lalitha (Lalithaa). Supreme female Deity in its beneficent form; a form of goddess Durga.
Lalitha Sahasranama (Lalithaa Sahasranaama). The 1008 names of Lalitha, the Supreme Deity.
Lanka. Capital city in Sri Lanka (Ceylon) of the demon Ravana.
Lankini (Lankinee). Also Lankalakshmi. Demoness guard of Lanka.
Lava. Twin son of Rama and Sita.
lavana. Salt.
Lavana. Sea of Salt.
Lavana. Terrible demon child of Vibhishana and Madhu; given trident of Siva for penance; killed by Satrughna with help of Rama.
Lavapura. City given to Lava, the modern Lahore.
laya. Merging, dissolution, absorption.
leela. Divine sport or play.
Leela (Leelaa). Woman who attained heaven through her devotion.
linga-deha (-dheha). Subtle body.
lingam. Egg-shaped stone; symbol of Siva; the form of the formless; symbolizes merger of the form with the formless.
lobha. Greed.
loka. Region, world. Usually refers to the three worlds of earth, atmosphere, and sky, but it can mean 7 or even 14 worlds (7 above and 7 lower).
loka-dharma. Worldly dharma.
loka-kalyana (-kalyaana). Worldly prosperity.
loka-mata (loka-maatha). Mother of all beings.
loka-palaka (-paalaka). World protector.
loka-sangraha. Well-being of the world.
loka-santhi (-shaanthi). World peace.
loka-siksha (-shiksha). Worldly punishment.
loukika. Connected with this world.


maadhyamika. Noontime.
maam-ekam. Me alone.
maanam. Self respect; pride.
maatsarya (maathsarya). Envy.
mada (madha). Pride.
Madalasa (Madhaalasaa). Wife of King Rithadwaja. Once the demon Patalaketu carried her away to the nether world; Patala and King Rithadwaja rescued her.
Madana-mohana (Maadhana-mohana). A person with captivating charm; a name for Krishna.
Madhava (Maadhava). God (name for Krishna); Master of illusion (maya), Lord of Lakshmi.
Madhava. See Madhwacharya.
Madhava-thathwa (Maadhava-thatthva). Godliness. God Principle.
Madhava-thwa (Maadhava-thva). Divinity.
Madhu. One of the demons born from the ear-wax of Vishnu; brother of Kaitabha and father of Lavana.
Madhu Kanda (Kaanda). First two sections of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.
madhura. Sweet, attractive
Madhu-sudana (-suudhana). "Killer of the Madhu demon". Name for Krishna.
Madhu-vana. Honey forest.
Madhu-vidya (-vidhyaa). Special ritual worship of the Sun.
Madhwacharya (Madhvaachaarya). 13th century Hindhu statesman and exponent of dualist philosopher, who lived at the South Indian court of Vijayanagar. Author of Vedantic works; founder of a sect of Vaishnavas; refuted monism of Sankaracharya.
madhyama. Middling, average.
Magadha. Region of Vasu, grandson of Brahma, through which the Sone river flows.
Magadhi (Maagadhi). River flowing in Magadha, through five mountains.
Magha. One of the 27 constellations.
Magha (Maagha). January-February; month associated with constellation Magha.
maha (mahaa). Great.
Mahaameru. The seat of Lord Siva; the golden peak of Himalaya.
Mahabharatha (Mahaabhaaratha). Ancient epic in poetic form, by sage Vyasa; describes conflict between the Pandava brothers and their cousins, the 100 Kaurava brothers. It contains the Bhagavad Gita, the metaphysical teaching of Krishna to Arjuna.
maha-bhuthas (mahaa-bhuuthas). Collection of the inner forces of the five elements.
Mahadeva (Mahaadheva). Name for Siva; the great Lord.
Maha-karana (Mahaa-kaarana). Supreme Cause.
Maha-lakshmi (Mahaa-lakshmee). Goddess Lakshmi.
maha-maya (mahaa-maayaa). Great illusion.
maha-pralaya (mahaa-pralaya). Final dissolution.
maha-prasthanam (mahaa-prasthaanam). Setting out on the great journey to death.
maha-purusha (mahaa-purusha). Outstanding sage.
maha-raja (mahaa-raaja). Great king.
maha-rishi (mahaa-rishi). Great sage.
Mahar-loka. Great world; fourth of seven Upper Worlds.
Maharoma (Mahaaroma). Son of Kirthiratha and father of Hriswarupa.
maharshi. Great sage.
mahath. Cosmic intelligence; great, meaningful; intellect.
mahath-ahamkara (-ahamka ara). The primordial great ego.
maha-thala (mahaa-thala). The great pit; sixth lower world.
maha-thathwa (-thatthva). Supreme Principle; cosmic intellect.
mahatma (mahaathma). Great soul.
maha-vakya (mahaa-vaakya). Divine maxim on Absolute Reality.
maha-vira. Great hero.
Mahavira. Son of Brihadratha and father of Sudrithi.
Maha-yuga (Mahaa-yuga). Great age, period of 12,000 yugas.
Mahendra Peak (Mahendhra Peak). A holy mountain.
Maheswara (Maheshvara). Name for Siva; the great Lord.
Mahodara (Mahodhara). One of Ravana's army chiefs.
Mahodaya (Mahodhaya). City built by Brahma's grandson Kusanabha.
Mahoraga. Great serpent.
Mainaka (Mainaaka). Holy mountain north of Kailasa. Bhagiratha did penance to bring the Ganga to the earth on this mountain.
Mainda (Maindha). Monkey hero warrior.
maithri (maithree). Comradeship with the good; affection for the name of God.
Maitreyi (Maithreyee). Female consort of Yajnavalkya; one of the greatest sage-philosophers in the Upanishads. Maitreyi was known for her wisdom. See the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.
Makaraksha (Makaraaksha). Great warrior for Ravana.
Makaradwaja (Makaradhvaja). Guard in Ahi-Ravana's city.
mala. Contamination, dirt.
Malada (Maladha). A kingdom mentioned in Ramakatha I.
Malava (Maalava). People of a region of the west coast of India; partisans of the Kauravas.
malina. Impure.
malina sathwa (satthva). Impure consciousness.
Mallamma. Name of a great lady devotee.
Malyavantha (Maalyavaantha). One of Ravana's ministers and father of Ravana's mother.
mama-kara (-kaara). Mine-ness.
mama-karma. My karma.
manana. Reflection, meditation, understanding.
manas. Feeling, mind.
manasa (maanasa). Mental.
manasa-putra (maanasa-puthra). Son born out of Mental power.
manasa-sarovar (maanasa-sarovara). Pellucid waters of the mind.
Manasa-Sarovar (Maanasa-Sarovar). Lake of the mind. Lake created by Brahma; source of the Sarayu river in the northern Himalayas, now in Tibet.
manasika-sambhaashana (maanasika-sambhaashana). Inner dialogue.
manava (maanava). Human being.
manava-thathwa (maanava-thatthva). Humanness, essential nature of human being.
manavathwa (maanavathva). Human value.
Mandakini (Mandhaakinee). River in Uttar Pradesh that flows near the Chitrakuta Mountain.
mandala. Section.
Mandara (Mandhara) Mountain. Holy mountain that served as the churning stick at the churning of the ocean for amritha.
Mandava (Maandhava). A monkey under Sugriva's command.
Mandavi (Maandavee). Wife of Bharatha, daughter of Kushadwaja, and niece of Janaka.
Mandhata (Maandhaatha). Eminent king in the dynasty of Ikshvaku. Son of Yuvanaswa and father of Susandhi.
mandir (mandhir). Temple.
Mandodari (Mandodhaaree). Ravana's wife, queen of Lanka.
Mandukya Upanishad (Maandhukya Upanishath). One of the ten most important Upanishads; it sets forth the doctrine that the whole world is present in the syllable Om.
manes. Souls of the ancestors.
mangala. Auspicious, fortunate.
Mangala Day. Tuesday; lucky or auspicious day.
mangalyam (maangalyam). Happiness, married state.
Manigriva (Manigreeva). Twin son of Kubera, turned into tree by the curse of sage Narada.
Manmatha. God of love.
manoakasa (mano-aakaasha). Mind-ether.
manobalam. Mind-strength.
manomaya-kosa (-kosha). Mental sheath of the body.
manonasanam (manonaashanam). Destruction of the mind.
manosanyasa (manosanyaasa). Mental renunciation.
mantap. Hall.
Manthara (Mantharaa). Hunchbacked maid of Queen Kaika.
manthri. Counselor, minister.
mantra (manthra). Sacred syllable or word(s) to be repeated (often silently) for attaining perfection or self-realization; a mystic formula for spiritual enlightenment.
mantra-japa (manthra-japa). Repetition of a mantra.
mantra-krit (manthra-krith). Creator of mantras.
mantra-sastra (manthra-shaasthra). The science of the Vedic sacred formulae.
mantric (maanthrik). Of or pertaining to a mantra.
Manu. The first father of mankind; author of the codes of righteous conduct (Dharma Sastras); son of Surya (the sun) and father of Vaivaswatha Manu, the present progenitor of mankind.
Manu-dharma. Code of virtuous conduct presented in the Dharma sastras by Manu.
Manu Dharma Sastra (Shaasthra). Codes of righteous conduct written by Manu.
manushya. Human being.
manushya-loka. Region or level of humans.
Manu-smrithi. Laws of Manu.
Manvanthara. An age of Manu.
marga (maarga). Path.
Margasira (Margashira). A month during the November-December period.
Maricha (Maareecha). Demon son of Thataki, uncle of Ravana.
Marichi (Mareechi). Great sage born from Brahma's mind. The ancestral line of king Dasaratha is traced back to Mareechi. marjala-kisora (maarjaala-kishora). Kitten (young of a cat).
Markandeya (Maarkandeya). As a boy, he knew all the Vedas and Sastras; at 16, he started meditating on Siva so steadfastly that the day of his death passed him by, and he remained 16 for the next 10 million years.
markata. Monkey.
markata-kisora (-kishora). Baby monkey.
Maru. Son of Seegharaga and father of Prasusruka.
Maru. Son of Haryasva and father of Prateendhaka.
maruth. Wind.
Maruth. Also Maruthi. God of wind.
Maruth (Maruttha). Wealthy king, who lived in the Kritha-yuga.
masthaka. Brain.
matha. Conclusion; Usually a monastery, where spiritual scriptural studies are conducted to complete the process of human birth's cycles to conclusion.
matha. Religion.
mathana. Churning.
Mathanga. A great sage; it is he who cursed Vali.
Mathariswan (Maatharishvaan). God of wind.
mata (maathaa). Mother.
mathi. Individualized mind.
Mathura (Mathuraa). Krishna's birthplace.
Matsya (Mathsya). The first incarnation of Vishnu, as a Fish.
Matsyasura (Mathsyaasura). Fish demon killed by Krishna.
maya (maayaa). Worldly illusion, mistaking the transient for the real; non-awareness of actuality, appearances masquerading as reality.
Maya (Maayaa). Consort of Vishnu; mother of Mayavi and Dundubhi.
Maya. A Danava king, who served the gods and demons as their architect and builder.
maya-prapancha (maayaa-prapancha). This illusory world, composed of the five elements.
maya-sakthi (maayaa-shakthi). Power of illusion, the veiling and projecting power of God.
Mayavi (Maayaavee). A demon, who was killed by Vali.
mayura (mayuura). Peacock.
Meera (Meeraa). Princess of Rajastan and queen of Chittor; devoted to Krishna; took poison from her husband without any effect; composed devotional songs of exceptional quality.
Meghanada (Meghanaadha). Ravana's son and general.
Mimamsa (Meemaamsa). Exegetical school of Indian metaphysics, the earlier (purva) concerning itself chiefly with interpretation of Vedic ritual and the later (uttara) with the nature of Brahman.
Mimamsaka (Meemaamsaka). Adherent of philosophical system concerning itself chiefly with correct interpretation of the Vedic rituals.
Mimamsa Sastra (Meemamsa Shaasthra). Science of Interpretation and Inquiry into Vedic rituals.
mishra-karmas. Mixed actions; good actions with negative motives.
mithaahaara. Moderate food.
Mithi. Son of Nimi, founder of the kingdom of Mithila. Also known as Janaka, as were all kings of this dynasty.
Mithila. Country of ancient Bharatha, ruled by King Janaka, on the northeastern side of India; Sita's childhood home.
mithra. Friend.
mithya. Mixture of truth and falsehood; neither true nor untrue, but something in between. The world is not untrue (a-sat) but mithya.
mithya-achara (-aacharaa). Unreal living, deluded living.
mithya-jnana (jnaana). False knowledge.
Mitra (Mithra). God always mentioned together with Varuna as rain god(s).
mnaa. Learn by heart (verbal form).
Modaki (Modhakee). Powerful mace given to Rama by Viswamitra.
moha. Delusion caused by false identification, infatuation.
moha-kshaya. Decline of delusion or infatuation.
Mohammed. Seventh century Arabic prophet and founder of religion of Islam.
mohana mantra (manthra). Bewildering mantra.
moksha. Liberation, devoid of delusion. Freedom from bondage.
Moksha-puri. Salvation City.
mouna (mauna). Silence.
mridanga (mridhanga). Drum.
mrinmaya. Consisting of earthly material.
mrithyu. Death.
Muchukunda (Muchukundha). A celebrated king of the Solar dynasty.
muditha (mudhitha). Joy in the company of those who serve others.
muhurtha (muhuurtha). Period of forty-eight minutes.
mukhya-rishi. Foremost sage.
muktha. Free, liberated.
muktha-purusha. Liberated person.
muktha-thrishna. Yearning for liberation.
mukthi. Liberation; final release or emancipation from the cycle of birth and death.
mukhya. Chief, foremost, first.
mula (muula). Primordial matter; root cause, basis, foundation.
mula-prakriti (muula-prakrithi). Causal substance; basic nature.
mumukshu. One who desires liberation.
mumukshuthwa (mumukshuthva). Desire for liberation.
munda. Head.
Mundaka Upanishad (Upanishath). One of the ten most important Upanishads, of Artharva-veda; it presents the Vedantic doctrine of knowledge of Brahman.
muni. Sage.
Muni Kanda (Kaanda). The second set of two sections of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.
muni-kumar (muni-kumaar). Son of a sage.
Murthi-devi (Muurthi-dhevee). Wife of Dharma and mother of the twins Nara and Narayana.
Mushtika. Fierce demon follower of Kamsa; fought Krishna and Balarama and was slain.


naada (naadha). Sound.
naadi. Nerve.
naaka. Heaven; nose.
naasa (naasha). Destruction.
naashta (naashtha). Food.
Nabhaga (Naabhaaga). Brother of Ikshvaku; father of Ambarisha. In Ramakatha I, Sathya Sai Baba says that Prasusruka was Ambarisha's father.
Nachiketa Agni (Nachiketha Agni). Name given to a particular ritual by Yama, because Nachiketas grasped its details so quickly.
Nachiketas (Nachikethas). Son of sage Vajasravas; given to Yama, the Lord of death, for questioning his father's mean gift of old and useless cows to pious people.
naga (naaga). Vital air that causes belching.
Nagarjuna (Naagaarjuna). Classical Indian medical knowledge is called ayur-veda (science of long life); the two chief traditions are those of Atreya and Dhanvantari. Nagarjuna (2nd cent. B.C.) presented Dhanvantari's in Sushrutha samhitha.
Nagas (Naagas). Class of serpents.
Nahusha. Son of Ambarisha and father of Yayathi.
naimittika (naimitthika). Associational or occasional.
nakshatra (nakshathra). Constellation.
Nakula. One of the Pandava brothers.
Nala. King of Nishada and husband of Damayanthi; lost his kingdom at dice. Also, the monkey-architect of Rama's bridge of monkeys across the ocean and commander in the army.
Nalakubara (Nalakuubara). Twin son of Kubera; turned into tree by the curse of sage Narada.
Nalayani (Naalaayanee). Previous birth of Droupadi, who was married to the aged, leprosy-ridden, sage Maudhgalya.
Nalini (Nalinee). Tributary of the Ganga, flowing eastward.
nama (naama). Name.
Namadev (Naamadhev). Hindu saint-poet in 13th and 14th centuries.
Namamnaya (Naamaamnaaya). Tradition learned continuously and steadfastly; a name for Veda; the primal source of all knowledge.
nama-karanam (naama-karanam). Naming ceremony of a child.
nama-rupa (naama-ruupa) jagath. World of name and form.
nama-sadhana (naama-saadhana). Practice of repeating the name of God.
nama-skaram (-skaaram). Respectful salutation.
nama-smarana (naama-smarana). Remembrance of the Lord's name.
namasthe. Literally, I greet the God in you.
nama-yajna (naama-yajna). Sacrifice only in name.
Nanak (Naanak). 15th century founder of Sikh religion.
Nanda (Nandha). King who adopted Krishna as infant.
Nandakumara (Nandhakumaara). ``(Adopted) son of Nanda'', a name for Krishna.
Nandana (Nandhana). Son of Nanda is Krishna.
Nandananda (Nandhaanandha). Name for Krishna.
Nandanar (Nandhanaar). Great 13th century devotee of Siva, born in the labourer (sudra) caste. Through devotion, he overcame all obstacles and merged with God in the temple in Chidambaram.
Nandhivardana. Son of Sudhavasu and father of Sukethu.
nandi (nandhi). Rite for prosperity.
Nandi (Nandhi). Siva's bull.
Nandigrama (Nandhigraama). Bharatha's residence during Rama's exile, about 14 miles from Ayodhya.
Nandini (Nandhinee). Fabulous cow of sage Vasishta bestowing all desires.
Nandiswara (Nandheeshvara). God, Lord of all creatures; Siva.
nara. Man; divine man; primeval man, human being.
Nara. One of Dharma's twin sons Nara and Narayana, two incarnations of Vishnu.
naraakaara. Human form.
Narada (Naaradha). Sage-bard; traveled the world chanting Narayana. Famous for creating disputes, resulting in solutions for the spiritual advancement or victory of the virtuous. Expert in law and author of texts on dharma.
Narada Bhakthi Sutra (Naaradha Bhakthi Suuthra). A text of aphorisms on bhakthi (devotion); attributed to the celestial sage Narada.
Narada-parivrajaka Upanishad (Naaradha-parivraajaka Upanishath). The sage-mendicant Narada's Upanishad.
naraka. Hell.
Naraka. Immensely powerful demon son of Earth and Hiranyaksha; killed by Krishna. Naraka stole Indra's mother's earrings and Indra's umbrella.
Narantaka (Naraanthaka). Demon son of Ravana.
Narasimha. Man-lion. One of the ten Avatars of Vishnu.
Narayana (Naaraayana). The Primal Person, the Lord, Vishnu.
Narayana (Naaraayana). One of Dharma's twin sons Nara and Narayana, two incarnations of Vishnu.
Narmada (Narmadha). Famous holy river of central India.
narothama (narotthama). Best of humans.
nasthika (naasthika). Atheist.
nazar. Gift (in Urdu).
neem. The margosa tree, which exudes a tenacious gum, has a bitter bark, and its fruit and seeds have medicinal properties.
neethi. Moral standards.
nethi. Not this.
nethra. Eye.
nidaana (nidhaana). Slow and sure.
nidaana-vathi (nidhaana-vathi). Step by step.
nidi-dhyasana (nidhi-dhyaasana). Inner concentration, profound meditation.
nidra (nidhraa). Sleep.
nidra-jith (nidhraa-jith). Enslaved by sleep.
Nigamaagama. That which has come or originated; a name for Veda.
Nikumbala. Garden where many demons did penance.
Nikumbha. A very powerful demon, Kumbhakarna's son.
Nila (Neela). A monkey-chief, the son of Agni; he wanted to jump over the ocean to get to Lanka.
Nilagiri (Neelagiri) Mountains. Mountains in the region called Ilavritha of Jambu Island.
Nimi. Son of Ikshvaku and father of Mithi, who founded Mithila on the banks of the Ganga.
nimitta (nimittha). Efficient.
nimitta-karana (nimittha-kaarana). Instrumental cause.
nir-aakaara. The state of formlessness.
nir-aakaara-upasana (-upaasana). You-without-form.
nir-aham-kara (-aham-kaara). Egolessness.
nir-avayava. Without parts, indivisible.
nir-dheshya. To be described.
nir-guna. Without qualities, attributeless.
nir-gunopasana (nir-gunopaasana). Contemplation on the formless Supreme.
nir-mala. Without blemish, pure.
nir-mama. Not mine.
nirodha. Absorption.
nir-vana (-vaana). Freedom, liberation from cycle of birth and death.
nir-vichara (-vichaara). Not amenable to intellectual analysis.
nir-vikalpa. Undifferentiated, without ideation.
nir-vikalpa-mounam. Silence without agitation or ideation.
nir-vikalpa-samadhi (-samaadhi). Undifferentiated deep communion, transcendental absorption.
nir-vikara (-vikaara). Changeless; without transformation.
nir-vishaya. Contentless, objectless.
nir-vitharka. Not amenable to arguments or logic; transcends such logics.
Nishada (Nishaadha). Country near the Himalayas, governed by Nala.
nish-chala. Immovable.
nish-chitha-jnana (-jnaana). Incontrovertible wisdom.
nish-kala. Having no parts.
nish-kama-karma (-kaama-karma). Renunciation of the fruit of action.
nish-kama-seva (-kaama-seva). Selfless service.
nish-kriya. Without activity.
nishta (nishtha). Regulated behaviour, excellence, discipline.
nithya. Eternal, permanent.
nithya-ananda (-aanandha). Eternal bliss.
nithya-anushtana (-anushthaana). Rites and vows prescribed for daily adherence.
nithya-karma. Necessary duty.
nithya-swayam-prakasa (-svayam-prakaasha). Eternally self-effulgent.
nivaasa. Living place, home.
nivarini (nivaarinee). Dispelling.
nivritti (nivritthi). Withdrawal, detachment, renunciation.
niyama. Control of the outer senses.
niyathi. Fixed order of things; destiny; fate.
nuthana (nuuthana). New.
Nyaya Sastra (Nyaaya Shaasthra). System of logical philosophy delivered by Gautama, which uses syllogistic inference.


ojas. Heroism, power.
Om. Designation of the Universal Brahman; sacred, primordial sound of the Universe.
Omkara (Omkaara). The form of AUM, or Om.
Om Tat Sat (Om Thath Sat). A mantra; it expresses the identity of the individual and the Universal Brahman.
oordhwa (uurdhva). Above, higher.
Oordhwa (Uurdhva). A name for Lord Sun in the Rig-veda.
oushadha. Plants.


paadha. Legs.
paaramaartha. Fool's goal.
Paaramarthika. Relating to the highest truth, Atma.
paasa (paasha). Bond.
paathra-dhaari. Actor, competent person.
paayu. Excretory organs.
pada (padha). Word, speech, sign, position, step.
padartha (padha-artha). Word-meaning; thing, object.
padartha-bhavana (padhaartha-bhaavana). Non-cognition of material objects.
padma (padhma). 1,000 billion.
padma (padhma). Lotus.
padmasana (padmaasana). Lotus-like posture.
pakora. Indian spicy hot snack.
Pampa (Pampaa). A lake in Kishkindha near which Sugriva stayed.
pancha. Five.
pancha-agni. The five fires.
pancha-akshari. Five syllables.
pancha-bhuthas (-bhuuthas). Five basic elements.
Panchadasi (Panchaadhashi). Work on Vedanta, by Madhava.
Pancha-jana. Ogre who swallowed Sandipani's son.
panchaka. Five-fold.
pancha-kosas (-koshas). Five sheaths of the individual: food, air, mind, intellect, bliss.
Panchanada (Panchanadha). Punjab region; land of five rivers.
pancha-prana (-praana). Five vital airs of the human body.
Panchavati (Panchavatee). A place on the southern bank of the Godavari river where Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana lived for some time while in exile. It got its name because of the five banyan trees that stood there in a circle.
Pandava (Paandava). Sons of Pandu; family of 5 brothers that fought the Kauravas: Dharmaraja, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva. See Mahabharatha.
pandit (pandith). Learned scholar, wise man.
panditya (paandithya). Scholarship.
Pandu (Paandu). Father of the Pandavas and brother of Dhritharashtra and Vidura.
pani (paani). Hand.
papa (paapa). Also papa-karma. Evil deeds, demerit, sin.
para (paraa). Higher, beyond, supreme, best.
para-akasa (para-aakaasha). Supreme space.
Paraasara (Paraashara). Grandson of Vasishta. Husband of Sathyavathi and father of Vyasa.
Paraath-para. The Omniself, That which is beyond the Beyond.
para-bhakthi (paraa-bhakthi). Supremest devotion.
Para-brahman. Universal Absolute Brahman.
Para-brahma-swarupa (-svaruupa). The form of the absolute Supreme.
Para-brahma-vasthu. The Absolutely and Supreme Real.
para-krama (paraakrama). Adventure.
param. Beyond.
Param-aartha. Highest good; highest goal beyond and above this material world, highest Truth.
Param-aartha-drishti (-dhrishti). Supra-vision; highest vision of truth.
Param-aartha Vahini (Vaahini). Stream of spiritual values, highest truth.
parama-arthika-jivan (paaramaarthika-jeevan). Supersensory spiritual life.
parama-hamsa. Realized sage.
Param-aiswarya (-aishvarya). Highest potency, felicity, wealth.
Paramam-vyoma. Great Protector.
Param-ananda (-aanandha). Highest bliss, union with Brahman.
Parama-pada (-padha). Name for the Godhead, meaning "Limitless Open"; the Highest Abode of Peace; highest stage of spirituality; final emancipation.
Parama-purusha. The supreme Spirit.
parama-purushas. The highest souls.
parama-santhi (-shaanthi). Highest peace.
Param-atma (-aathma). Supreme Self, Supreme Atma.
Param-atma-swarupa (-aathma-svaruupa). Embodiment of the Supreme Lord.
Param-atma-thathwa (-aathma-thatthva). Supreme Atmic principle.
Param-eswara (Parameshvara). Supreme Lord, highest Godhead, Siva.
Param-jyothi. Highest revelation, supreme light, divine intelligence.
para-prakriti (paraa-prakrithi). Higher world, nature.
parartha (paraa-artha). Higher good, truth.
para-sakthi (paraa-shakthi). Universal cosmic energy; supreme energy.
Para-sakthi (Paraa-shakthi). Supreme Goddess, embodiment of highest energy.
Parasurama (Parashu-raama). An incarnation of Vishnu as man, born to destroy the arrogance of the wicked Kshatriya kings.
Para-thathwa (paraa-thatthva). Absolute supreme principle.
para-vidya (paraa-vidhyaa). Spiritual science.
parigraha. Accepting help from others.
pariksha (pareeksha). Search, quest, test.
Parikshith (Pareekshith). Emperor of Kuru dynasty; grandson of Arjuna and son of Abhimanyu.
parinami (parinaami). Change, transformation.
paripurna (paripuurna). Full, complete, entire.
Paripurna (Paripuurna). Godhead, meaning the Fullest Full.
paripur-natha (paripuur-nathaa). Self-sufficiency.
parisuddha (parishuddha). Purity.
parithyajya. Abandon, cast aside.
Parivrajaka Upanishad. See Narada-parivrajaka Upanishad.
Parjanya. God of rain.
parnasala (parnashaala). Leaf-hut, arbor.
paroksha. Unseen, invisible.
paroksha-jnana (-jnaana). Indirect or mediate spiritual wisdom.
paropakara (paropakaara). Service to others.
Partha (Paartha). "Son of Earth (Prithvi)". Name for Arjuna.
Parvathi (Paarvathee). Siva's consort.
paschimotthaasana. Seated forward bend.
pasu (pashu). Animal, bull.
pasu-balam (pashu-balam). Animal strength.
pasu-patha-astra (pashu-pathaasthra). Siva's missile.
pasupathi (pashupathi). Master of his animal qualities.
Pasupathi (Pashupathi). Lord of animals or individualized souls; name for Siva.
pasu-pathi-balam (pashu-pathi-balam). Strength of the lord of animals.
Pasu-pathi (Paashupathi). Name for Siva.
pasu-pathopaasana (paashu-pathopaasana). Siva worship.
pasyathi (pashyathi). Looks outward.
Patala (Paathaala). Deepest hell; one of the seven regions under the earth; the abode of serpents and demons.
patalahoma (paathaalahoma). Ritual to ensure victory.
patali (paatalee). A tree with blossoms that don't turn into fruit.
Patanjali (Pathanjali). Author of the Yoga Sutras, which form the foundation of the yoga system of Indian philosophy. See raja-yoga.
pathi-vratha. Chaste and loyal to the husband.
pathi-vratha dharma (-vrathaa-dharma). Duty of a chaste wife to husband.
pathni. Housewife.
pathya-pathi (pathyaa-pathi). Master of the path.
pattabhisheka (patthaabhisheka). Coronation.
Paundraka. Demonic king of ancient Karusha; challenged Krishna and was destroyed.
Pavini (Paavanee). Tributary of the Ganga, flowing eastward.
payasam (paayasam). Food, made with sweetened milk.
phala-thyaga (-thyaaga). Renunciation of the fruit of action.
pindanda (pinda-anda). Inner principle of all the duality; microcosmos.
pingala-naadi-marga (-maarga). Path of the psychic nerve current, terminating in the right nostril; solar path.
Pippalada (Pippalaadha). Ancient sage renowned for penance; a great preceptor of spiritual knowledge.
pithaa. Father
pitha-ambara (peetha-ambara). Yellow cloth.
pitri (pithri). Forefather, ancestor, manes.
pitri-yana (pithri-yaana). Path of ancestors, through which the soul ascends to the Lunar World to enjoy the benefits of ritual works.
pitru-loka (pithru-loka). World of the fathers.
poshana. Protection, nourishment, support, growth.
pourusha. Vitality, valour.
praajna. The conscious inner individual Self.
praani. Living unit.
praathah-sandhya. Dawn worship of the Lord.
prabha (prabhaa). Brilliance.
Prabhasa-kshetra (Prabhaasa-kshethra). Celebrated place of pilgrimage on the west coast near Dwaraka.
Prabhuki. Dear Lord.
Prachetas (Prachethas). Valmiki's father.
Prachinabarthi (Praacheenabarhi). Grandson of Emperor Prithu. He carpeted world with darbha grass with its head turned toward the east and thus got his name.
pradhana (pradhaana). Primordial matter; source of material world according to sankhya.
Prahastha. Son of Ravana and minister of Ravana.
Prahlada (Prahlaadha). Son of the demon king Hiranyakasipu. As a boy, he was beaten, trampled, and cast into fire and water. But he saw only God everywhere, and repetition of the Name of God saved him. Once, Prahlada asserted that God was everywhere, and Narayana appeared in his man-lion form from within a pillar to destroy the king.
praja. Ruled, people.
praja-kama (-kaama). Desiring progeny.
Prajapathi (Prajaapathi). Creator of this world; God presiding over creation. Also called Manu, Surya's son.
prajna (prajnaa). Intuitive wisdom dependent upon individuality.
prajna. Deep sleep state.
prajnaa-maandya (-maandhya). Dullness of the intellect.
prajnana (prajnaana). Highest wisdom.
prakanthi (prakaanthi). Radiance, spiritual effulgence.
prakasa (prakaasha). Effulgence, luminosity.
prakriti (prakrithi). Causal matter, creation, nature.
prakriti-purusha (prakrithi-purusha). Nature-spirit.
prakriti-sakthi (prakrithi-shakthi). Power of nature.
Pralamba. Demon who attacked Krishna and was destroyed.
pralaya. Dissolution of the world.
prana (praana). Life-breath, life force, vital energy, the five vital airs.
prana-agni (praana-agni). Fire of breath.
Prana-atma (Praana-aathma). Superconsciousness that activates the vital airs.
prana-maya (praana-maya). Made of vital breath.
prana-maya kosa (praana-maaya kosha). The second, subtle sheath of man, consisting of the vital airs and the nervous system.
Prana-pati (Praana-pathi). Ruler of the vital airs.
pranava. Om, the sacred primordial sound principle.
pranava-naada (-naadha). Om sound.
pranava-swarupa (-svaruupa). Embodiment of Om.
prana-vayu (praana-vaayu). Life-giving breath.
prana-yama (praanaayaama). Breath control.
prapancha. Cosmos; created world composed of the five elements.
prapanna. One who surrenders to the Lord.
prapatthi. Surrender to the Lord, unflinching devotion.
prarabdha-karma (praarabdha-karma). Karma from previous births that determines the present life.
prasadha (prasaadha). Consecrated food.
prasanthi (prashaanthi). Supreme peace, equanimity.
Prasenajit (Prasenajith). Son of Susandhi.
prasna (prashna). Question.
Prasna Upanishad (Prashna Upanishath). One of the ten most important Upanishads; it deals with six questions concerning Brahman by spiritual seekers to the sage Pippalada.
Prasthana Thraya (Prasthaana Thrayee). The three supreme spiritual texts: the Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, and Brahma Sutra.
Prasusruka. Son of Maru and father of Ambarisha.
prathama. First or primordial.
Prathama-ja (-jaa). Primal-born; a name for Veda and for Hiranyagarbha.
Pratheendhaka. Son of Maru and father of Kirthiratha.
prathibha (prathibhaa). Intuition, thought.
prathi-bimba. Image, that with which an object is compared.
prathikopasana (pratheekopaasana). Worship of symbols.
prathi-rupo-pasana (prathi-ruupa-upaasana). Image adoration or worship.
pratyagatma (prathyagaathma). The inner ' I '.
pratyahara (prathyaahaara). Control of mind; withdrawing senses from the external world and turning them toward a higher consciousness.
pratyaksha (prathyaksha). Direct knowledge, perceptible, before one's eyes.
Pravardha. Son of Raghu and father of Sudarsana.
praveshtum. Entering.
pravritti (pravritthi). Worldly activity, attachment.
Prayag (Prayaaga). Holy place at the meeting point of Ganga, Yamuna, and the underground Saraswathi rivers. Modern Allahabad in the State of Uttar Pradesh. Bathing here would give great spiritual blessing.
prema. Divine or supreme love.
prema-rasa. Essence of love.
Prema Sai Baba. Third of the triple incarnation consisting of Shirdi Sai Baba, Sathya Sai Baba, and Prema Sai Baba. See here for more information.
prema-swarupa (-svaruupa). Embodiment of love.
Prema Vahini (Vaahini). Stream of Divine Love, a book by Sathya Sai Baba.
preritha. Urged, impelled.
preyas. Pleasing, pleasurable sensation, worldly joy.
Prithu. King of great virtue, born in the line of Druva.
prithvi (prithvee). Earth, world.
priya. Also priyam. Love, dearness.
prusni (prushni). Purity, clarity, sanctity; a name for Veda.
Prusnigarbha (Prushnigarbha). "He who contains all clarity and wisdom"; name for Veda.
puja (puuja). Worship.
Pulastya (Pulasthya). Son of Brahma, father of Vishravas, and grandfather of Ravana.
pundit (pandith). Learned scholar, wise man.
punya. Virtuous deeds, good works, meritorious actions.
puraka (puuraka). Inhalation of air.
purana (puraana). Ancient.
Purana (Puraana). Any of a number of collections of ancient legends and lore embodying the principles of the universal, eternal religion and ethics. There are 18 Puranas, the most famous being the Mahabhagavatham and the Devi Bhagavatham.
Purana Purusha (Puraana Purusha). The Primal Person.
Purandara (Purandhara). A name for Indra.
Puranic (Puraanik). Relating to Purana.
purdah. Seclusion of women.
puri. Fried bread.
purna (puurna). Complete, full.
purna-ahuthi (puurna-aahuthi). Valedictory oblation.
purnathwam (puurnathvam). Perfection, fullness.
purohitha. Performer of rites (a priestly role in a sacrifical rite).
purtha (puurtha). Act of charity.
Puruhutha (Puruhuutha). Name for Indra, meaning "often invited" or "the god who is most called upon".
purusha. Perfect person, soul, self, indweller.
Purusha. Primeval Person, Supreme Spirit, Lord, God.
purusha-arthas. Goals of human life.
purusha-dharma. Dharma for man (for the male).
purusha-lakshana. Hallmark of man.
Purusha Sukta (Suuktha). A hymn in the Rig-veda.
Purushothama (Purushotthama). The supreme Lord of all.
purvaja (puurvajaa). Primeval, born before.
purva mimamsa (puurva meemaamsa). Inquiry into or interpretation of the ritualistic action part of the Veda.
Purva Mimsamsa (Puurva Meemaamsa). A text by Jaimini on the early school of Mimamsa philosophy.
purva paksha. Technique of raising an objection to expound truth.
purva-samskara (puurva-samskaara). Prior purification, or past impressions leaving an impact on present life.
Pushkara. Bharatha's second son.
Pushpaka. Kubera's chariot; used by Rama to go home.
pushpaka-vimaana. Divine aerial chariot fashioned by Viswakarma.
Pushya. Sixth lunar mansion; auspicious constellation.
pusthaka. Book.
Puthana (Puuthaana). Ogress killed by Krishna.
putra (puthra). Son.
putra-kameshti (puthra-kaameshthi). Sacrifice prescribed for those wanting to beget a son.


Radha (Raadhaa). Cowherd maid, a chief devotee of Krishna; one of Lakshmi's forms.
raga (raaga). Sense of attachment, passion, affection; tune.
Raghu. Dilipa's son; famous king of the Solar dynasty.
Rahu (Raahu). A demon (a-sura), step-brother of Kethu. Both are also inauspicious planets; An eclipse is the phenomenon of Rahu 'swallowing the moon'.
raja (raaja). Ruler, king, member of ruling class.
raja-bhavan (raaja-bhavan). Palace.
raja-dharma (raaja-dharma). Rules relating to a king.
raja-guru (raaja-guru). Royal Preceptor.
raja-mata (raaja-maatha). Queen Mother.
rajarshi (raajarshi). Royal sage.
rajas. Passion, activity, restlessness, aggressiveness. Associated with colour red. See guna.
rajasic (raajasik). Adjective form of rajas, passionate, emotional.
rajasika-marga (raajasika-maarga). Path of passionate action.
rajasuya (raaja-suuya). Great sacrifice performed at a king's coronation.
raja-yoga (raaja-yoga). Royal yoga of meditation, detachment, and desirelessness. Eight-fold path of yoga developed by Patanjali, which includes control of the mind and withdrawal of the senses from the external world.
raja-yogi (raaja-yogi). Yogi on the path of royal yoga (raja-yoga).
rajoguna. Quality of passion, restlessness, aggressiveness. Associated with colour red. See guna.
rajya (raajya). Kingdom.
Rajyalakshmi (Raajya-lakshmee). Goddess of the kingdom; good fortune of the kingdom.
raksha. Saviour, protection.
rakshaka. Protector, amulet.
rakshasa (raakshasa). Demon, ogre.
rakshka-varna. Caste of protectors or guardians of law and order; the kshatriya caste.
rama (raama). Joy, delight. See Rama.
Rama (Raama). Avatar of the Thretha-yuga. Hero of the Ramayana; killed the wicked Ravana to rescue his wife Sita, who had been kidnapped. "Rama" means "he who pleases".
Rama-chandra (Raama-chandhra). Name for Rama.
Rama-Gita (Raama-Geetha). Name for the dialogue Yoga-vasishta.
Rama-katha (Raama-kathaa). Story of Rama.
Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Raamakrishna Paramahamsa). (1836 to 1886) Celebrated mystic; mastered all types of Yoga and also Christian and Islamic practices. Swami Vivekananda took his message of universal religion to the West. Married to Saradadevi.
Ramana Maharshi. Indian sage, 1879­1950, who taught the path of self-inquiry.
Ramanuja (Raamaanuja). Eleventh century spiritual teacher and interpreter of the Brahma Sutra; proponent of the ultimate oneness of the differentiated (visishta-adwaitha). Believed in a personal God reached by devotion and faith and the everlasting self-identity of the individual soul in communion with God as the goal of life.
Rama-rajya (Raama-raajya). The kingdom of Rama; the ideal ruler.
Ramayana (Raamaayana). The epic that narrates the story of Rama.
Ramdas (Raamdhaas). Maratha 17th century saint; author of work on religious duty; guru of the great King Sivaji.
ranjana. Pleasing, delighting.
rasa. Taste, sweetness, essence of enjoyment.
rasa-aswadana (-aasvaadhana). Enjoyment of bliss.
Rasa-kreeda (Raasa-kreeda). Divine dance of Krishna.
Rasatala (Rasaathala). A nether region; one of the lower worlds.
Rasmani (Raasmani). Rani Rasmani. Devotee of Ramakrishna; constructed a Kali Temple in Calcutta.
rathi. Attachment.
Rathi Devi (Rathee Dhevi). Goddess of love.
Rathnakara (Rathnaakara). The wayside robber who, because of the teaching of sages, repented and became Valmiki, the author of the Ramayana.
Ravana (Raavana). Lord of demons and king of Lanka, who abducted Sita (Rama's wife).
rechaka. Exhalation of air.
rekha. Geometry, line.
Rig-veda (Rik-vedha). First Veda composed by the sages, consisting of 1028 hymns. Oldest religious text in world.
Rig-vedic (Rik-vedhik). Of or relating to the Rig-veda.
rijuthwam (rijuthvam). Integrity, sincerity.
rik. Hymn or sacred verse, from the Rig-veda.
Rik-samhitha. Rig-veda. Samhitha means "collection".
Rik-veda. See Rig-veda.
Rishabha. A sage, the son of King Nabhi and the grandson of King Agnidra. He did tapas for many years in the forest.
rishi. Sage, wise man.
Rishi-krit (-krith). Creator of sages (rishis).
Rishyamuka (Rishyamuuka) hills. Mountain where Rama and Lakshmana met the sage Markandeya.
Rishyasringa (Rishyashringa). Hermit of family of Kasyapa; born from his father Vibhandaka's semen spilled upon viewing Urvasi.
rithwik (rithvik). Priest.
roga. Disease.
rogi. Sick person.
Rohini (Rohinee). Wife of Vasudeva and mother of Balarama.
Romapada (Romapaadha). King of the state of Anga; friend of Dasaratha.
Rubhu. A son of Brahma, a sage and an extraordinary scholar.
ruchi. Light, luster, beauty, pleasure, taste for.
Rudra (Rudhra). Vedic God of dissolution of the cosmos; named Siva in his auspicious or benevolent form; one of the Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra/Siva.
rudraksha (rudhraaksha). A tree; its berries are used for making rosary beads.
Rukmini (Rukminee). Chief queen of Krishna.
Ruksharaja (Ruksharaaja). Monkey form created by Brahma. Was changed into a female, mothered Sugriva (through Surya) and Vali (through Indra), and was then changed back into a male.
rupa (ruupa). Form, figure, appearance.
rupa-laya (ruupa-laya). Dissolution of form.


saakaara (sa-aakaara). With form.
saakaara-upasana (-upaasana). You-with-form.
saakha (shaakha). Limb, branch.
saakthopasana (shaakthopaasana). Worship of the feminine aspect of the divine.
saama. Also saamana. Particular kind of sacred hymn; song from the Sama-veda.; chanting.
Saaswatha (shaashvatha). Eternal.
Sabari (Shabaree). A woman ascetic living in the hermitage of her teacher, Sage Mathanga; Rama gave her salvation.
sabda (shabdha). Sound.
sabdopasana (shabdhopaasana). Contemplation, meditation on sound.
sabha. Assembly hall.
sadasat (sadha-sath). Existent-nonexistent.
sadbhava (sadhbhaava). Goodness, good nature.
sadbuddhi (sadh-buddhi). Good sense.
saddharma. True dharma or righteousness.
sadguna (sadh-guna). Good character, virtue.
sadguru (sadh-guru). True teacher to be followed.
sadhachara (sadhaachaara). Good conduct.
sadhaka (saadhaka). Spiritual aspirant.
sadhana (saadhana). Spiritual discipline or exercise; self effort.
sadhana chathushtaya (saadhana chathushthaya). Four disciplines.
sadhgathi. Good path.
sadhu (saadhu). Virtuous, wise aspirant; pious or righteous person.
sadhu-guna (saadhu-guna). Virtuous quality.
sadhvimani (saadhveemani). Virtuous woman.
sadvakya (sadhvaakya). Divine maxim on Absolute Reality.
sadyomukthi (sadhyomukthi). Instantaneous liberation.
sagara (saagara). Ocean.
Sagara. Ancient emperor of Ayodhya; son of Asitha and father of Aswamanja.
sagara-sangama (saagara-samgama). Place where a river joins the ocean.
sa-guna. With qualities, with form, materialized.
sa-gunopasana (-gunopasana). Worship of the qualified divinity.
Sahadeva (Sahadheva). One of the Pandava brothers.
Sahadeva (Sahadheva). King of Ikshvaku dynasty; son of Srinjaya and father of Somadatta.
sahaja. Innate, inborn, natural.
sahaja-bhakthi. Natural true devotion.
sahaja-swabhava (-svabhaava). Innate nature.
sahana. Tolerance, fortitude.
sahas. Power, victory, strength.
sahasam (saahasam). Adventurous, courageous quality.
sahasra-nama (-naama). 1000 names of Siva or Vishnu.
Saibya (Shaibya). Also named Sathyakama.
Saivopasana (Shaivopaasana). Siva worship.
sajjana. Wise, virtuous people.
sakalaiswarya (sakalaishvarya). Supreme lordship; all powers and potencies.
Sakalya-brahmana (Shakalya-braahmana). Part of collection systematized by sage Sakalya.
sakama-karma (sakaama-karma). Karma with expectation to reap fruit for oneself.
Sakatasura (Shakataasura). Demon sent by Kamsa in the form of a cart to kill Krishna; Krishna kicked the cart to pieces.
Sakkubai. A famous Krishna devotee.
sakshat-kara (saakshaath-kaara). Divine spiritual experience or vision; direct exerience of the Lord.
sakshi (saakshi). Witness.
sakthi (shakthi). Great universal power, divine energy, strength.
Sakthi (Shakthi). Female consort of Siva. Also, a weapon given by Brahma to Meghanada, who used it on Lakshmana.
sakthi-path (shakthi-paath). Descent of divine energy.
salokya-mukthi. Being in the same plane or world of God consciousness.
Salya (Shalya). Kaurava king of Madhra.
sama (saama). Quiet persuasion, good counsel.
sama (shama). Control of the senses, peace, equanimity, tranquility.
samaana. Equal.
sama-buddhi. Equal-mindedness.
sama-chithathwam (-chitthatthvam). Equanimitous or balanced state.
sama-dhana (samaa-dhaana). Mind control by equanimity.
samadhi (samaadhi). Literally, total absorption. State of super consciousness resulting in union with or absorption in the ultimate reality, the Atma; perfect equanimity.
sama-drishti (-dhrishti). The act of looking on all equally or impartially.
samana (samaana). Digestive air; even breath.
Samamithra. Equal Friend. A name for Agni, the God of Fire.
samanvaya. Mutual connection, harmonizing factor.
sama-rasa. Enjoyment in equanimity.
samashti. Collective aggregate of individual parts; integrated whole.
samatha. Equal-mindedness, harmony, agreement.
samatha-buddhi (samathaa-buddhi). Balanced state of intellect.
sama-thwam (-thvam). Equanimity of outlook.
samathwa-sthithi (samathva-sthithi). State of equanimity.
Samavarthana. Ceremony for completion of studenthood.
Sama-veda (Saama-vedha). Collection of Vedic hymns appropriate for singing as liturgies.Sambara (Shambara). Leader of the demons who possessed great magical powers; killed by Dasaratha.
Sambara (Shambara). Demon son of Hiranyaksha who was a great adept in magic; killed by Krishna.
sambhasana (sambhaashana). Speech, conversation, dialogue.
samchitha. Accumulated.
samdhanakarini (samdhaanakarini). Healing mixture used for Lakshmana.
sameepa. Nearest.
samhitha. Collection of methodically arranged verses or text; continuous text of the Vedas as formed out of the separate words by proper phonetic changes.
Samhitha. Sama-veda. samhitha literally means "collection".
Samika (Shameeka). Sage around whose neck Parikshith wrapped a dead snake.
samipya-mukthi (saameepya-mukthi). Being close to the Divinity, the glory of the Lord.
samithpaani. Holding the sacrificial fire.
Samkarshana. Name for Balarama, Krishna's brother.
Sammohana. Rama's arrow that deluded the enemy.
sampath. Also sampatthi. Wealth, treasure, excellence, virtue.
Sampathi (Sampaathi). Huge, aged eagle brother of the noble Jatayu.
samsara (samsaara). The objective world; sea of change; cycle of birth and death; transmigration.
samsara-vriksha (samsaara-vriksha). Tree of worldly illusion.
samskara (samskaara). Inborn desire, mental impression of acts done in former state of existence. Purificatory ceremony or sacrament.
samthusthi (samthushthi). Total contentment.
samudra (samudhra). Ocean.
Samvarga-vidya (-vidhyaa). Science of absorption.
samvathsara. Year.
sam-yag-dharshana. Complete perception or vision of the truth; perfect spiritual knowledge; highest non-dual realization of Self.
sam-yak. Right, correct, true, integral.
sam-yama. Self control.
sam-yoga. Union.
Sanaka. A rishi, one of four mental sons of the Creator, Brahma.
Sananda (Sanandha). A rishi, one of four mental sons of the Creator, Brahma, (the others are Sanathana, Sanatkumara, and Sanaka).
sanathana (sanaathana). Ancient and also eternal.
Sanathana (Sanaathana). One of the four mental sons of the Creator Brahma.
Sanathana Dharma (Sanaathana Dharma). Eternal Universal Religion.
Sanathana Sarathi (Sanaathana Saarathi). Literally, "eternal charioteer". The monthly magazine published by the Sri Sathya Sai Baba Books and Publications Trust.
sanathana vidya (sanaathana vidhyaa). Spiritual education.
Sanatkumara (Sanathkumaara). One of the four sons of Brahma.
Sanatsujatha (Sanathsujaatha). Name for Sanatkumara.
sanchitha. Stored karma, which is being worked out over several lifetimes.
sandeha (sandheha). Doubt.
sandesha (sandhesha). Instruction, message, information.
sandhya. Early morning, noon, evening; conjunction of time periods.
sandhya-vandana (-vandhana). Morning, noon, or evening prayers.
Sandilya-vidya (Shaandilya-vidhyaa). Science of devotion given by the great sage Sandilya.
Sandipani (Saandheepani). Krishna's preceptor.
Saneeswara (Shaneeshvara). Ruler of Saturn.
sanga-buddhi. Mind with strong attachments.
Sanjaya. An advisor to the blind King Dhritharashtra.
sanjivakarini (sanjeevakarin). Antidote, potion causing life.
Sanjivi (Sanjeevi) Hill. Hill containing life-giving herbs for healing, located in the Drona Mountains.
sankalpa. Will, resolve.
sankalpa-siddha. Master of will.
Sankara (Shankara). Name for Siva.
Sankara (Shankara). Celebrated philosopher, preceptor of non-dualistic Vedanta. Defeated all religious opponents in debates throughout India.
Sankaracharya (Shankaraachaarya). Sankara the spiritual teacher.
Sankasya (Sankaasya). Kingdom of ancient India; capital city of Kushadwaja, who was Sita's uncle.
sankata (sankatha). Grief, danger, difficulty.
sankha (shankha). Conch.
sankhya (saankhya). One of six leading systems of spiritual Vedic philosophy, attributed to sage Kapila. Its chief object is the emancipation of the soul from the bonds of worldly existence.
sankhya. Measurement, calculation, number.
sankhyan (saankhyan). One who believes in or propounds the sankhya system of thought.
sanmarga (sanmaarga). Good conduct.
sannidhi. Presence.
santha (shaantha). A person of inner peace.
Santha (Shaanthaa). Daughter of King Romapada who wed the sage Rishyasringa.
santha-bhaktha (shaantha-bhaktha). Peaceful devotee.
santha-bhakthi (shaantha-bhakthi). Peaceful devotion.
santham (shaantham). Equanimity, serenity, tranquility.
santha-mantra (shaantha-manthra). Mantra for peace.
santhi (shaanthi). Peace, equanimity, serenity, tranquility.
santhi-swarupa (shaanthi-svaruupa). Embodiment of peace.
santhosha. Peace, contentment, happiness.
sanyasa (sanyaasa). Renunciation-detachment, mendicancy.
sanyasa-dharma (sanyaasa-dharma). Dharma for a renunciate.
sanyasi (sanyaasi). Also sanyasin. Renunciant, mendicant.
saptha. Seven.
Sarabhanga (Sharabhanga). A sage blessed with immolation in Rama's presence.
Sarada Devi (Saaradhaa Dhevee). Saintly wife of Ramakrishna, called the "holy mother".
saradkala (sharathkaala). Also sharath. Autumn.
Sarama (Saramaa). Wife of Vibhishana.
saranagathi (sharanaagathi). Absolute self-surrender.
Sarangi (Shaarangee). A female adept who was well versed in Brahmic wisdom.
Saraswathi (Sarasvathee). An underground river, originating in the upper Indus river basin and joining the Ganga and Yamuna rivers at Prayag or Allahabad.
Saraswathi (Sarasvathee). Goddess of learning and eloquence, a daughter of Brahma.
sarathi (saarathi). Charioteer.
Sarayu (Sarayuu). Stream flowing by Ayodhya, Rama's city of birth.
sarga. Creation.
sarira (shareera). Body.
saririka (shaareerika). All the components of the embodied Atma.
sarovar. Lake.
sarpastra (sarpaasthra). Serpent arrow.
sarpi. Clarified butter or ghee.
Sarpi. Sea of Ghee.
sarupya-mukthi (saaruupya-mukthi). Having the same form of Divinity.
sarva. All, every.
sarva-adhara (-aadhaara). Basis of all.
Sarva-antaryaami. Indweller in all, the universal Self.
sarva-antaryamithwa (-antharyamithva). All-pervasiveness.
sarva-butha-anthar-atma (-bhuutha-anthar-aathma). Inner reality or self in all beings.
Sarva-chaithanya. Omni-consciousness.
sarva-dharma. All feelings of obligations and responsibilities, of rights and duties.
sarva-jana. All people.
sarva-jana-samaana. Equality of all people.
sarva-jna. Omniscient.
sarva-karma-phala. The fruit of all karma.
sarva-karma-sanyas (-sanyaas). Withdrawal from all activity.
sarva-kriya-parithyaga (-parithyaaga). Renunciation of all action.
sarva-loka-hitha. Universal good; benefit of whole world.
sarva-manava-sukha (sarva-maanava-sukha). Welfare of all human beings.
sarva-mangala. Universal welfare, joy, victory.
sarvangaasana. Shoulder stand involving the lifting of all limbs.
sarva-saktha (-shaktha). All-powerful.
sarva-swarupee (-svaruupee). All forms.
Sarvatmaswarupa (Sarvaathma-svaruupa). Total being or nature, universal soul.
sarva-vyapi (-vyaapi). Present everywhere, all pervading.
Sarveswara (Sarveshvara). The Lord of all.
Sarveswara-chinthana (Sarveshvara-chinthana). Contemplation of the Lord.
Sasibindus (Shashibindhus). Descendents of King Sasabindu, son of Chithraratha.
sastra (shaasthra). Holy scripture; sacred text; that which commands, orders, directs with authority.
sastric (shaasthrik). Relating to the scriptures.
sat (sath). Existence, being, good, real.
satchidananda (sath-chith-aanandha). Existence-knowledge-bliss, or being-awareness-bliss.
sat-guna (sath-guna). Virtuous quality.
Sathadhanva (Shathadhanva). Yadava king. He stole a famous gem, killing its owner, and Krishna and Balarama then killed him.
Sathananda (Shathaanandha). Son of Gautama and Ahalya; high priest of Janaka, who officiated at Rama and Sita's wedding.
Sathapatha Brahmana (Shathapatha Braahmana). One of the Brahmana texts of the Veda.
Satha-rupa (Shatha-ruupaa). Feminine counterpart of Swayambhuva Manu. Means hundred faceted or most beautiful.
sath-bodha. Good teaching.
sath-darshan (-dharshan). Correct vision.
sath-karma. Good actions.
sath-purusha (-puruusha). Wise man.
sath-sang. Good company.
sath-seela (sath-sheela). Good conduct, behaviour.
sathwa (satthva). Purity, calmness, serenity, joy, strength, goodness. Associated with colour white. See guna.
sathwa-guna (satthva-guna). Quality of purity, calmness, serenity, joy, goodness, strength. Associated with colour white. See guna.
sathwic (saatthvik). Adjective form of sathwa; serene, pure, good, balanced.
sathwic manas (saatthvik manas). Awakened conscience; literally, pure mind.
sathwic marga (saatthvika maarga). Path of serenity, purity, balance, goodness.
sathya. Truth.
sathya-achara (-aachaara). Living a truthful life.
Sathya-bama (-bhaama). One of the wives of Krishna.
sathya-dharma. Law of truth, practice of truth.
sathya-jivi (-jeevi). True soul.
sathya-jnana (-jnaana). Wisdom concerning the Reality, Truth.
sathya-kama (sathya-kaama). Desirous of Truth.
Sathyakama (Sathyakaama). Noble hermit son of Jabali.
Sathyakama (Sathyakaama). Noble hermit son of Sibi and disciple of Pippalada. Also named Shaibya.
sathya-loka. Realm of truth.
Sathya Sai Baba. Second of the triple incarnation consisting of Shirdi Sai Baba, Sathya Sai Baba, and Prema Sai Baba. He left the physical body in 2011. See here for more information.
sathya-sankalpa. True Resolve.
sathya-swarupa (-svaruupa). Embodiment of truth.
sathya-vathi. Truth-based, truthful.
Sathya-vathi (-vathee). Sister of Viswamitra.
Sathya-yuga. Age of truth; first of the four yugas.
Satrughna (Shathrughna). Sumitra's son, twin of Lakshmana and brother of Rama. The name means "slayer of enemies".
Satrunjaya (Shathrunjaya). Dasaratha's elephant.
saumya. Gentle, soft.
sauvarnakarini. The golden remedy for disease.
savam (shavam). Corpse, tomb.
sa-vichara (-vichaara). With deliberation and reasoning or enquiry.
sa-vikalpa. With differentiated ideation, thoughts of difference.
sa-vikalpa-ananda (-aanandha). Bliss of the highest subject-object contact.
sa-vikalpa-samadhi (-samaadhi). Subject-object type of superconscious state.
sa-vitharka. With logical argumentation.
Savithri (Saavithree). Brought husband back to life by outwitting Yama, the Lord of Death, by her power of purity and chastity.
sayujya (saayujya). Union, merger with the Divine.
sayujya-mukthi (saayujya-mukthi). Union-with-God liberation.
Sigaraga (Sheegharaga). Son of Agnivarna and father of Maru.
seetha-agni. Cold fire.
sesha (shesha). Divine serpent.
Sesha-Naga (Shesha-Naaga). See Adisesha.
seva. Selfless service; service to others while trying to serve the God within them.
sevak. One who engages in service; server; worshipper.
seva-yajna. The sacrifice of selfless service.
shad. Root form of sitting, also destroying.
shadbhaava. Six-fold.
sharanam-vraja. Take refuge; resort to self-surrender.
sheersha. Head.
Shirdi Sai Baba. First of the triple incarnation consisting of Shirdi Sai Baba, Sathya Sai Baba, and Prema Sai Baba. He left the physical body in 1918.
Shuddhodhaka. Sea of Pure Water.
Shyamasundar (Shyaamasundhar). Name for Krishna.
Sibi (Shibi). Emperor of India, noted for generosity; offered pound of own flesh to save Agni in the form of a dove from Indra in the form of a hawk.
siddha. Accomplished, achieved, fulfilled, successful.
siddhaasana. Perfect sitting posture.
siddhantha (siddhaantha). Authoritative texts; established tenet or doctrine.
siddha-purusha. One who has attained the highest goal of spiritual exercise, a perfected yogi.
Siddhasram (Siddhaashrama). A hermitage shown to Rama and Lakshmana by Viswamitra.
siddhatha (siddhaatha). Conclusion.
siddhi. Perfection; yogic power.
Sikhari (Shikharee). Mace given to Rama by Viswamitra.
siksha (shikshaa). Instruction, learning, knowledge, phonetics instruction, teaching.
sikshaka (shikshaka). Teacher.
sikshana (shikshana). Learning.
Sikh-upasana (-upaasana). Sikh mode of worship.
Simhalagna. Zodiacal sign of the lion.
Simhika (Simhikaa). A giant ogress, who tried to stop Hanuman on his jump to Lanka.
Sindhu. Indus river; one of two main Indian river systems. Persians called the whole country Hindu from this river name. Originates in Kasmir and joins Arabian Sea in Karachi.
Sindhuranatha (Sindhuranaatha). Minister of Ravana.
Singh. Govind Singh. (1666­1708) Tenth and last guru of the Sikh religion.
siras (shiras). Head.
sishya (shishya). Pupil, student, disciple.
Sisupala (Shishupaala). Demon who merged with the Lord when slain by Krishna.
sita (seetha). Furrow.
Sita (Seethaa). Wife of Rama; brought up by King Janaka who found her in a box in the earth. Also, a tributary of the Ganga, flowing westward.
siva. (shiva). Also sivam. Temple, the divine; refers to Siva. Also, grace, auspiciousness, goodness.
Siva (Shiva). Destroyer in the trinity of Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu (the Preserver), and Siva. The embodiment of spiritual wisdom and God of Gods, Mahadeva.
Sivalingam (Shivalingam). See lingam.
Sivanandalahari (Shivaanandhalahari). Spiritual poetic work in adoration of Siva by Sankaracharya.
Siva Purana (Shiva Puurana). One of the Puranas.
Sivoham (Shivoham). I am Siva, or Divine.
Skanda (Skandha). Siva's son Subrahmanya.
Skanda Purana (Skaandha Puraana). One of the eighteen Puranas, the epic story of Skanda.
sloka (shloka). Verse.
smarana. Remembering the name of the Lord.
smrithi. Code of law; traditional law delivered by human authors.
snaana. Bath.
sneha. Affection, tenderness, love.
soham. I am God.
Somadatta (Somadhattha). King of Ikshvaku dynasty; son of Sahadeva and father of Kakuthstha.
Somaka. Demon who forbade the mention of God's name.
Sona. Famous holy river in the Puranas; known as Sumagadhi. Identified with the Sone river in Bihar State of modern India.
soucha (shoucha). Also soucham. Purity, cleanliness.
soukhya. Happiness, contentment.
Sounaka (Shaunaka). Renowned sage; teacher of Aswalayana and author of Brihad Devatha and Rig-veda Pratishakhya.
Souryayani (Sauryaayani). Grandson of Surya, born in the family of Garga (and hence called Gargya).
sparsa (sparsha). Touch, contact.
sraddha (shraddha). Faith.
srama (shrama). Burden.
sramika (shraamika). Labourer.
sravana (shraavana). Listening to discourses on the scriptures.
Sravana (Shraavana). Son of hermits; was killed accidentally by Dasaratha, who was cursed by Sravana's parents to die from loss of children.
sree (shree). Success, good fortune, welfare.
sreyas (shreyas). Blessedness, ultimate good.
sreyokarma (shreyokarma). Actions that liberate.
sreyomarga (shreyomaarga). Path of fulfillment.
Sri (Shree). Honorific prefix to the name of deities; respectful title of venerated persons and celebrated works.
srimantha (shreemantha). Prosperous person.
Sringi (Shringi). Son of sage Samika.
Sringivera (Shringivera). Capital city, near the Ganga, of kingdom ruled by Guha.
Sringiverapuram (Shringiverapuram). Sacred place ruled by King Guha of Nishada.
Srinjaya. King of Ikshvaku dynasty; son of Dumraswa and father of Sahadeva.
srishti (srishthi). Creation.
srishti-kartha (srishthi-kartha). Author of this universe, this creation.
srothra (shrothra). Ear.
srotriyas (shrothriyas). Those versed in the Vedas; strict followers of Vedic culture.
Srutha-keerthi (Shrutha-keerthee). Wife of Satrughna, daughter of Kushadwaja, and niece of Janaka.
sruthi (shruthi). Sacred revelations orally transmitted by brahmins from generation to generation, differing from traditional law codes (smrithi). Divinely sourced scripture; Veda; divine words known by revelation; that which was heard or listened to.
Sruthi (Shruthi). A name for Veda.
Sruthyam (Shruthyam). Wealth of intuitive wisdom by which the Lord is obtained in accordance with the Vedas.
sthaavara. The fixed, stationary.
sthairyam. Steadfastness.
sthana (sthaana). State, setting of boundaries.
sthira. Steady, firm, fixed, permanent.
sthira-sukha-aasanam. Steady, comfortable sitting posture for meditation.
sthitha-prajna. Person of steady integral spiritual wisdom.
sthithi. Preservation, staying, abiding. Also a state, position, condition.
sthula (sthuula). Gross, material, superficial.
stotra (sthothra). Hymn of praise of God.
stri-dharma (sthree-dharma). Dharma for women.
Subahu (Subaahu). One of two sons of the demoness Thataki, the other being Maricha. Also son of Satrughna who killed the demon Lavana's sons
subha (shubha). Good, beautiful, auspicious.
subha-drishti (shubha-dhrishti). Auspicious vision.
Subhadra (Subhadhraa). Younger sister of Krishna and wife of Arjuna.
subham (shubham). Hurrah, welcome, good, auspicious.
subhamasthu (shubhamasthu). Be well.
Subha Yogini (Shubha Yogeenee). Female yogi in the Mahabharatha.
subhecha (shubhecchaa). Yearning for one's spiritual welfare; the first stage of higher knowledge (Jnana Bhumika).
Subhikshu. Tributary of the Ganga, flowing west.
Suchandra (Suchandhra). King of Ikshvaku dynasty; Hemachandra's son and father of Dumraswa.
Sudakshina (Sudhakshinaa). Magadhan wife of King Dilipa.
Sudarsana (Sudharshana). Son of Pravardha and father of Agnivarna.
suddha (shuddha). Pure.
suddha sathwa (shuddha satthva). Pure consciousness.
suddhi (shuudhi). Purity.
Sudeva (Sudhevaa). King Kasi's daughter and Nabhaga's wife.
Sudhama (Sudhaama). Respected minister of Janaka.
Sudhanva. Evil king of Sankasya.
su-dharshan. True vision.
Sudhavasu. Son of Mithi, who founded Mithila.
su-dhee. Person of pure intellect.
sudra (shuudhra). Labourer, the fourth caste of workers. See Caste.
Sudrithi (Sudhrithi). Son of Mahavira and father of Dhrishtakethu.
Sugriva (Sugreeva). Monkey-king, brother of Vali; with his army of monkeys headed by Hanuman, assisted Rama in defeating Ravana.
su-jnana (-jnaana). Good knowledge, ability to distinguish right from wrong.
su-jnani (-jnaani). Wise person.
Suka (Shuka). Divine son of author of the Mahabharatha, Vyasa. Visited King Janaka, who instructed him in the path to liberation. Also, a messenger of Ravana.
Sukesa (Sukesha). A sage, the son of Bharadwaja.
Sukethu. Yaksha father of Thataki. Son of the Gandharvas King Surakshaka.
Sukethu. Son of Nandivardhana and father of Devaratha.
sukha-swabhava (svabhaava). Happy-natured.
sukla (shukla). White.
sukla-paksha (shukla-paksha). The bright fortnight.
Sukla Yajur Veda (Shukla Yaajur Vedha). One part of the Yajur-veda, promoted by Yajnavalkya.
sukshma (suukshma). Subtle; small; that which expands.
sukta (suuktha). Hymn.
Sulabha Yogeenee (Sulabhaa Yogini). Female mendicant in Mahabharatha.
Sulochana. Wife of Meghanada.
Sumagadhi (Sumaagadhi). Name for the Sona river.
Sumanthra. Court priest and prime minister of Dasaratha.
sumathi (sumathee). Person with good intelligence.
Sumathi (Sumathee). Wife of Sagara and daughter of Arishtanemi.
Sumathi. King of Ikshvaku dynasty and son of Kakuthstha.
Sumathi Sathaka (Sumathee Shathaka). Name of a Telugu poetic work on ethics.
Sumeru Peak. Also Mahameru. The golden-coloured peak of the Himalayas; the seat of Siva.
Sumitra (Sumithraa). Second wife of Dasaratha and mother of Lakshmana and Satrughna.
Sunaka (Shunaka). King in the Solar Dynasty.
Sunayana (Sunayanaa). Wife of King Janaka.
Sunda (Sundha). Very cruel asura or demon; brother of Upasunda and husband of Thataki.
sundaram (sundharam). Beauty.
Sunila (Suneela). A mountain where Rama camped in Lanka.
sunya (shuunya). Emptiness; void.
Suparna. Son of the eagle Sampathi.
sura (suraa). Liquor.
Sura (Suraa). Sea of Wine.
Sura. God.
Surasa (Surasaa). Mother of naga (serpents).
Surasena (Shuurasena). The father of Vasudeva and Krishna's grandfather. Also, the state over which they ruled.
Surdas (Suurdhaas). A great blind devotee of Krishna.
Sureswaracharya (Sureshvaraachaarya). One of the foremost disciples of Sankaracharya.
Surpanakha (Shuurpanakhaa). Ravana's wicked sister.
surya (suurya). The sun.
Surya (Suurya). The sun god, the father of time. A name for the sun. Also, son of Kasyapa and father of Manu.
Surya-deva (Suurya-dheva). Same as Surya; Sun.
surya-loka (suurya-loka). Region of the solar principle.
Surya-narayana-murthi (Suurya-naaraayana-muurthi). The sun-god personified.
Surya-narayana (Suurya-naaraayana). Sun-god.
Susandhi. Son of Yuvanaswa and father of Daivasandhi and Prasenajit.
Sushena. A monkey under Sugriva's command, Also a physician of Lanka.
Sushrutha. Author of the science of surgery; held in great esteem in ayur-vedic medicine.
sushumna (sushumnaa). Nerve current passing through the spinal column from the basal plexus (muladhara) to the crown of the head (sahasrara).
sushupti (sushupthi). Deep sleep state.
Sutha (Suutha). Disciple of the great sage Vyasa.
Suthala. Region of great depth; third region under the earth.
Sutheekshna. A hermit whom Rama and Sita visited in the forest; brother of Agastya.
sutra (suuthra). Concise rule or aphorism; that which, through a few words only, reveals vast meanings; text consisting of aphorisms or maxims; a thread; something, like a thread, that runs through and holds everything together.
sutradhari (suuthradhaari). Director of the play.
swaaha (svaaha). Expression used for auspiciousness while making oblations.
Swaaha Devi (Svaahaa Dhevee). The deity who is invoked by the word swaaha, the wife of Agni, the God of Fire. She is the power of digestion.
swaahutham (svaahutham). Well digested, well sacrificed.
swa-bhava (sva-bhaava). Essential nature, essence, reality, truth.
swadha (svadhaa). Benediction used when presenting oblations to forefathers.
swa-dharma (sva-dharma). One's own dharma or duty.
swa-dharma-nishta (sva-dharma-nishtha). Devotion to one's duty.
swadhyaya (svaadhyaaya). Study of religious scriptures, especially the Vedas.
Swadhyaya (Svaadhyaaya). A name for Veda; self study; study of self.
swadhyaya-yajna (svaadhyaaya-yajna). Self study of scriptures.
swa-karma (sva-karma). Own destiny or fate.
swapna (svapna). Dream state.
swapna-avastha (svapna-avastha). Dream state.
swara (svara). Musical notation.
swa-rajya (sva-raajya). Self-rule.
swarga (svarga). Heaven.
swarloka (svar-loka). Celestial plane, heaven.
swartha (sva-artha). A person's own interest; selfishness.
swa-rupa (sva-ruupa). Form, essential nature, true nature of Being.
swa-rupa-naasa (sva-ruupa-naashaa). Destruction of the agitations, including their shapes and forms.
swa-swarupa (sva-svaruupa). One's true nature.
swa-tantra (sva-thanthra). Freedom.
swayam-bhu (svayam-bhu). Self-emergent.
swayam-jyothi (svayam-jyothi). Self-illuminating.
Swayam-prabha (Svayam-prabhaa). Celibate daughter of Maya, a demoness.
swayam-prakasa (svayam-prakaasha). Self-illuminating.
swayam-vara (svayam-vara). Festival for choice of bridegroom.
swedaja (svedhaja). Sweat-born.
Swethakethu (Shvethakethu). A great sage; the first person to argue aginst the evils of drinking and adultery by the brahmins; son of Uddalaka.


taijas (thaijas). Splendid, luminous (from tejas).
taijasa (thaijasa). Entity associated with dream state composed of mind, intellect, five vital airs, five senses of perception, and the five elements; the experiencer of the dream or subconscious state, "light" of the subconscious.
Taithiriya Brahmana (Thaitthireeya Braahmana). One of the Brahmana texts of the Yajur-veda.
Taithiriya Upanishad (Thaitthireeya Upanishath). One of the ten most important Upanishads; it is the philosophical portion of the Black Yajur-veda; the other part is called the White Yajur-veda.
Takshaka (Thakshaka). Fierce demon-serpent, who bit Parikshith and killed him.
tantra (thanthra). Means and methods of utilizing the mantras for one's own good.
tantric (thaanthrik). Relating to tantra.
tapas (thapas). Concentrated spiritual exercises to attain God, penance, severe austerities.
tapasvi (thapasvi). Ascetic.
tapoja (thapoja). Born of asceticism (tapas).
tapoloka (thapoloka). World of virtue; sixth of the Upper Worlds.
tapoyajna (thapoyajna). Ascetic sacrifice.
taptha (thaptha). Hot.
Tara (Thaaraa). Vali's wife.
tarka (tharka). Philosophical system based on reasoning or logic.
tejas (thejas). Spiritual power, splendour.
tejorupam (thejoruupam). Effulgent form.
thaapathraya. Threefold afflictions.
thadbhaktha. (thath-bhaktha). Profound devotion and love to Him.
Thaksha. Bharatha's son.
thalaathala. Bottomless pit; fourth region under the earth.
thaladi-ghosha (thaalaadhi-ghosha). Clapping sound.
Thalajanghas (Thaalajanghas). Sons of the valiant Thalajangha, who is one of the five sons of the famed emperor Karthvirya.
Thalavakara (Thalavakaara). A branch of the Sama-veda.
Thalavakaropanishad (Thalavakaaropanishath). Name for Kena Upanishad.
thamas. Dullness, ignorance, delusion, inactivity, passivity, inertia, sloth. Associated with colour black. See guna.
Thamasa (Thamasaa). River that flows into the Ganga; Valmiki's ashram was on it.
thamasah parasthaath. Beyond the realm of darkness; divine realm.
thamasic (thaamasik). Adjective form of thamas, dull, ignorant, passive.
thamasika-marga (thaamasika-maarga). Path of ignorance and passivity.
thamoguna. Quality of dullness, ignorance, delusion, inactivity, inertia, sloth. Associated with colour black. See guna.
thanmanas. Turning mind to God, seeing Him in every being.
than-mathra (-maathra). Atomic, subtleness.
thanumanasi (thanumaanasi). State of attenuated body consciousness.
thapovana. Sacred grove in which religious austerities are practised, hermitage.
tharka. Philosophical system based on reasoning or logic.
Thataki (Thaatakee). Fierce demoness mother of Maricha and Subahu; wife of Sunda.
thatastha (thathastha). Derivative.
Thath. That, the Godhead.
Thath-swarupa (-svaruupa). The form of Brahman.
Thath twam asi (Thatthvamasi). You are That. One of four great statements expressing the non-difference of individual soul with Brahman, the supreme absolute Self, in Vedantic philosophy.
Thathwa (Thatthva). Principle, truth, essence. That-this entity. Thathwa is regarded as made up of That (Thath) and you (thwam).
Thathwa-bhranthi (Thatthva-bhraanthi). Identification with the That-this entity
thathwa-vith (thatthva-vith). Knower of Reality, That.
thavaiva-aham. I am Thine.
theertham. Sacred bathing place, sacred river spot.
thithi. A lunar day; the moon increases for 15 thithis and decreases for 15.
thithiksha (thitheekshaa). Fortitude, forbearance.
thithiri (thitthiri). Partridge.
thra. Protecting.
Thrayee. Three. Triple sacred science: the first three Vedas: Rig, Yaju, and Sama. Also, a name for Veda, because the Vedas were originally in three parts.
Thretha-yuga (Threthaa-yuga). The second in the cycle of four eras. See yuga.
Thrijata (Thrijataa). A demoness devoted to God and warden of Sita during her imprisonment in Lanka.
thri-karanas. Three instruments: thought (mind), word (mouth), and deed (hand).
thri-muurthi. Three forms, the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu, Siva.
Thrinabindu (Thrinabindhu). Ancient sage and prince.
Thrinavartha (Thrinaavartha). A demon sent by Kamsa to kill infant Krishna; in form of whirlwind, he bore the infant high, but Krishna destroyed him.
thripthi. Satisfaction.
Thripura. A phantom city built by Maya (illusion) in the sky, earth, and ether for the demons; it was destroyed by Siva.
thriputa. Three-fold.
Thrisanku (Thrishanku). King for whom Sage Viswamitra created another heaven.
thrishna. Thirst, desire, and associated activity to fulfill desire.
Thrisira (Thrishira). A demon, younger brother of Khara and Dushana.
thrupthi. Contentment.
thuriya (thureeya). "Beyond" stage in samadhi; fourth stage beyond waking, dream, and deep sleep. Superconscious state.
thvak. Skin.
thwam (thvam). Thou, You, This, the individual.
thwam-eva-aham (thvam-eva-aham). I am Thou alone.
thyaga (thyaaga). Sacrifice, renunciation.
thyaga-bhumi (thyaaga-bhuumi). Land of renunciation.
thyaga-kshetra (thyaaga-kshethra). Abode or field of sacrifice.
Thyagaraja (Thyaagaraaja). 18th and 19th century mystic singer/ composer. Leader in Karnatak tradition of classical Indian music. Born in Thanjavur District of south India.
thyagi (thyaagee). Renunciant.
Trinity. Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu (the Preserver), and Siva (the Destroyer).
Tripithaka. The three collections of sacred writings.
Tripura Rahasyam. Tripura means trinity and Rahasya means mystery. Mystery of the 3 states of consciousness, Waking, Dreaming and Deep sleep.
Trisanku (Trishanku). Anaranya's son and father of Dhundhumara.
trisula (trishuula). Trident of Siva.
triveni (thriveni). triumvirate (three things).
Triveni (Thriveni). Confluence of the three rivers Ganga, Yamuna, and the subterranean Saraswathi at Prayag.
Trivikrama (Thrivikrama). Three steps.
Tukaram (Thukaaraam). Well-known Maratha 17th century writer. He abandoned the world and became a wandering ascetic.
tulsi (thulasi). Sacred medicinal plant.
Tulsidas (Thulsidhaas). Author of the greatest medieval devotional poetical work concerning the acts of Rama.


udana (udhaana). Breath that moves upward from the throat.
udara-poshana (udhara-poshana). Feeding of the stomach.
udbija (udhbija). Earth-born.
Uddalaka (Uddhaalaka). Hermit-sage father of Swethakethu.
Uddhava. Friend and messenger of Krishna.
udhaaseena-bhava (-bhaava). Stage of disinterestedness, equanimity.
Ugrasena. Son of Ahuka and father of Kamsa.
Uma (Umaa). Daughter of Himavaan; sister of Ganga.
upa. Near.
upaasya. Thing worshipped or contemplated.
upadana (upaadhaana). Proximate or material basis.
upadesa (upadhesha). Teaching; advice; initiation; communication of an initiatory mantra or formula.
upadhi (upaadhi). Container, disguise, encasement, limitation.
upanayana (upanaayana). Sacred thread ceremony in which a boy is initiated with a sacred thread and is then qualified to learn Vedas.
Upanishad (Upanishath). Any of a set of most ancient treatises constituting the primary source of Vedanta metaphysics. Principle message is nondualism: unity of Brahman and the Atma.
Upanishadic (Upanishaadhik). Relating to the Upanishads.
upapandavas (upapaandavas). Children of Droupadi; descendents of the Pandavas.
upa-prana (-praana). Subsidiary vital air, belonging to the body.
Upa-puranas (-puraanas). Supplements to the Puranas.
uparathi. Control of mind by withdrawal from senses.
upasaka (upaasaka). Worshiper.
upasana (upaasana). Worship, devotion, meditation practice, acquisition of the presence of the Lord.
upasthaa. Study in proximity of the teacher.
Upasunda (Upasundha). Wicked demon; brother of Sunda.
upavasa (upavaasa). Fast.
Upaveda (Upavedha). Appendix to the Vedas.
upeksha. Detachment; non involvement.
Urmila (Urmilaa). Wife of Lakshmana, daughter of Kushadwaja, and brother of Janaka.
Urvasi (Uurvashi). One of 4 celestial dancers in the court of Indra.
usha. Dawn, early morning.
uthama (utthama). Highest, best.
uthama-purusha (utthama-purusha). Noblest of men.
uthi (uuthi). Arising from one's activity, consequence of one's activity.
uthpatthi. Creation or cause of creation.
uthsava. Festival.
utsaha (uthsaaha). Enthusiasm.
uttara (utthara). Later.
Uttara (Utthara). Son of King Virata.
Uttara (Uttharaa). Daughter of Virata, mother of Parikshith, wife of Abhimanyu.
Uttarakuru (Uttharakuru). Heavenly part of the island of Jambu. At its northern end lies Mount Meru.
uttara-marga (utthara-maarga). Northward path of the sun.
Uttara Mimamsa (Utthara Meemaamsa). Later Mimamsa Vedantic philosophy, as distinguished from earlier Mimamsa, which concerned itself with rituals. By Veda Vyasa.
Uttaraphalguna (Uttharaphalguna). Name of a star.
uttarayana (uttharaayana). Northward path of the sun.
uvaacha. Spoke.


vaak. Vocal organs, word, word of mouth.
Vaak-Devi (-Dhevee). The deity that presides over speech, over the Vedic word; Saraswathi.
vaartha. Vocational knowledge.
Vaasudeva (Vaasudheva). Son of Vasudeva. Name for Krishna.
vaatsalya (vaathsalya). Affection, esp. toward offspring.
vahana (vaahana). Vehicle.
vahini (vaahini). Stream or flow.
Vaidarbhi (Vaidharbhi). A disciple of Pippalada, born in the line of Bhrigu. Also named Bhargava.
Vaikunta (Vaikuntha). Vishnu's heaven.
vairagi (vairaagi). Monk; renunciant.
vairagya (vairaagya). Detachment, renunciation.
Vaisakh (Vaishaakha). One of the 12 months constituting the Hindu lunar year (April-May).
Vaiseshika (Vaisheshika). Later school of Nyaya philosophy founded by Kanada.
vaishamya. Unbalanced.
vaishnavite. Worshiper of Vishnu.
Vaiswanara (Vaishvaanara). Omnipresent as fire in everyone, Supreme Self, "sum total of created beings".
vaisya (vaishya). Business person, trader, merchant. See Caste.
vaithathya. Falsehood.
Vaivaswatha Manu (Vaivasvatha Manu). Head (Indra) of the present age of Manu (Manvanthara); Prajaprathi. Son of Manu and father of Ikshvaku.
Vajasaneyi (Vaajasaneeya). Section of the Vedas taught by the Sun in the form of a horse (vaji).
vaji (vaaji). Horse.
vajra. Thunderbolt, esp. that of Indra, formed from the bones of sage Dadhichi. See Dadhichi.
Vajra. A grandson of Krishna.
vajra-astra (-asthra). Thunderbolt, esp. of Indra, shaped like a circular discus.
vajra-yoga. A conjunction (in atrological terms) of Indra.
vakya (vaakya). Maxim, statement.
Vali (Vaali). A great monkey-king; brother and enemy of Sugriva.
Vallabhacharya (Vallabhaachaarya). Fifteenth century Vaishnava teacher; advocated non-mortification of the body. Wrote many spiritual texts including commentaries on the Vedanta-sutras.
valli. Section, chapter; literally, creeper.
Valmiki (Vaalmeeki). The saint-poet who wrote the Ramayana.
Vamadeva (Vaamadheva). Ancient hermit. Friend of Vasishta and a priest of Dasaratha; he composed Rig-vedic hymns.
Vamana (Vaamana). Dwarf incarnation of Vishnu, who asked for three feet of land from Emperor Bali and humbled Bali's pride.
vana. Woods, forest.
vanaprastha (vaanaprastha). Forest-dweller, hermit; third of the four stages of life.
vanara (vaanara). Monkey.
vandana. Praise, worship, veneration, salutation.
vanik. Merchant, trader.
Varaha (Varaaha). A boar, one of the ten incarnations of Vishnu.
Varathanthu. Teacher of the hermit Kautsu.
varchaska. A person with splendour, brightness, power.
Vardhamana (Vardhamaana). Splendid palace of King Dasaratha wherein the queens resided.
varna. Caste.
varna-ashrama dharma (-aashrama dharma). Obligations relating to the caste-stage of life.
varna-dharma. Dharma of any caste or tribe.
varuna. Water, rain.
Varuna. Chief Rig-vedic god associated with Mitra; god of rain, water, the ocean, night; a great sage.
Varuni (Vaarunee). Daughter of Varuna, who was married by devas (gods).
Varuni Vidya (Vaaruni Vidhyaa). Knowledge of the sage Bhrigu.
vasana (vaasana). Inclination, impression of anything remaining in the subconscious mind from past action.
vasantha. Spring season.
vashatkaara. A ritual exclamation uttered at the end of a sacrificial hymn for offering of fire oblations.
Vasishta (Vashishtha). One of the greatest rishis (sages) of ancient times; priest of the solar race of kings; revealer of several Vedic hymns. Had sacred, wishfulfilling cow called Nandini.
Vasishta-smrithi (Vashishtha-smrithi). Law book written by Vasishta.
vasthu. The Real; material object.
vasu. Wealth.
Vasu. Son of Kasu and grandson of Brahma.
Vasudeva (Vasudheva). Father of Krishna.
Vasudeva (Vasudheva). God of wealth.
Vasuki (Vaasuki). One of the famous serpents or Nagas.
vayu (vaayu). Wind, air.
Vayu (Vaayu). The God of wind.
Veda (Vedha). See Vedas.
Veda-mata (Vedha-maatha). The mother that is the Veda.
Vedangas (Vedhaangaa). Subsidiary treatises of the Vedas: six sciences of proper pronunciation, grammar, metre, etymology, astronomy, ritual.
Vedanta (Vedhaantha). The doctrine of either pure non-dualism, i.e. the identity of Brahman and the Atma, or conditioned non-dualism; the end or bottom line of the Vedas, which declares this doctrine.
Vedanta vaakya-sravana (Vedhaantha vaakya-shravana). Listening to spiritual texts.
Vedantic (Vedhaanthik). Of or pertaining to Vedanta.
vedanthin (vedhaanthin). Knower of Vedanta.
Veda-rupa (Vedha-ruupa). Form of the Veda.
Vedartha (Vedhaartha). Meaning or goal of the Vedas.
Vedas (Vedhas). Entire body of ancient sacred revelations of truth, chief among which are four books: the Rig-veda, Yajur-veda, Sama-veda, and Atharvana-veda.
Veda-swarupa (Vedha-Svaruupa). Embodiment of the Veda.
Veda-vidya (Vedha-vidhyaa). Knowledge of the Vedas.
veda-vid (vedha-vith). One who has mastered the Vedas.
Veda Vyasa (Vedha Vyaasa). Name for Vyasa. See Vyasa.
Vedic (Vedhik). Of or pertaining to the Vedas.
veena. Indian lute
Veeradasa (Veeradhaasa). A member of the Ganga clan; his daughter married Sumanthra.
Vena. Infamous king whose hand was churned by the hermits, producing Prithu, ruler of the world.
Venkata. Name for Vishnu. He is installed in Tirupati.
Venkatagiri. Sacred hill 80 miles from Madras.
venu-naada (-naadha). Flute sound.
vesma (veshma). House.
Vibhandaka. Hermit of family of Kasyapa; his son Rishyasringa was born from his semen spilled upon viewing Urvasi, the celestial damsel.
Vibhishana (Vibheeshana). Brother of Ravana; Rakshasa chief who represented pure mindedness and sided with Rama.
vibhushana (vibhuushana). Ornament, shining jewel.
vibhuthi (vibhuuthi). Holy ash.
Vibudha. Son of Devamedha and father of Kirthiratha.
vichakshana. Discriminating intellect.
vichara (vichaara). Inquiry, analysis, and reflection of the nature of the Self or truth.
vicharana (vichaarana). Enquiry, analysis.
Vidarbha (Vidharbha). Brother of Bharatha and son of sage Rishabha. Also, Sagara was the emperor of Vidarbha.
Vidarbha. An ancient country in India.
videha (vidheha). Deceased, free from body.
Videha (Vidheha). Royal dynasty of Janaka; the kingdom of Mithila, native country of Sita.
videha-muktha (vidheha-muktha). One liberated when deceased.
videha-mukthi (vidheha-mukthi). Transcorporeal liberation.
vidithatmas (vidhithaathmas). Knowers of the Atma.
Vidura (Vidhura). Brother and chief minister of King Dhritharashtra, the father of the Kauravas. See Mahabharatha.
vidwan (vidhvaan). Wise person.
vidya (vidhyaa). Spiritual education, spiritual knowledge, learning, that which illumines, that which gives light, supreme teaching.
vidya-maya (vidhyaa-maayaa). Knowledge-based illusion.
Vidyaranya Madhwacharya (Vidhyaaranya Maadhvaachaarya). See Madhwacharya.
Vidyujjihva (Vidhyujjihva). Demonic follower of Ravana who practiced sorcery and witchcraft.
Vighneswara (Vighneshvara). Overcomer of obstacles, Ganesha, son of Siva.
vigrahavan (vigrahavaan). Personified.
vihara (vihaara). Activity, recreation.
vijaya. Victory.
Vijaya. Conqueror, or Victory (name for Arjuna).
vi-jnana (vi-jnaana). Highest wisdom; discriminating faculty of the intellect; spiritual wisdom beyond the material plane.
vi-jnana-ghana (vi-jnaana-ghana). Sum and substance of spiritual wisdom.
vi-jnana-mandir (vi-jnaana-mandhi). Temple of spiritual wisdom.
vi-jnana-maya kosa (vi-jnaana-maya kosha). Body sheath of intellect, intuition.
vi-jnani (vi-jnaani). Scientist; wise person; one who has developed and correctly applied spiritual power.
vi-kalpa. Negativity, indecisiveness.
vi-kara (-kaara). Transformation, change.
vi-kari (vikaari). A mutable entity.
vi-karma. Wrong action.
vikasa (vikaasa). Expansion, blooming state; illuminating.
Vikata. One of the monkeys who wanted to jump over the ocean to get to Lanka.
vikriti (vikrithi). Changed, transformed.
vikshepa. Waywardness; distracted or diffused mind that obstructs concentration; projecting.
vikshepa-sakthi (-shakthi). Projecting power.
Vikukshi. Son of Kukshi and father of Bana.
vilasa (vilaasa). Play, manifestation; diversionary activity.
vimala. Having all impurity destroyed.
vimana (vimaana). Vehicle capable of flying into space.
vimarsha. Quest.
vinasa (vinaashaa). Destruction, extinction.
vinaya. Modest conduct, discretion, humility.
Vindhya mountain range. One of seven chief holy mountain ranges. Separates South India from North India and faces the Himalayas.
viparya-duraagraha. Exaggerated conceit.
Virat-purusha (Viraat-purusha). First incarnation of Brahma; Cosmic Divinity; Lord in His form as the physical manifested cosmos.
Viraat-rupa (Virat-ruupa). Universal Form, Supreme Being.
Virat-swarupa (Viraat-svaruupa). The Lord in His form as manifested universe; the cosmic form of God.
Viradha (Viraadha). Fierce ogre; killed by Rama in the Dandaka Forest.
Virasaivopasana (Veerashaiva-upaasana). Exclusive Siva worship.
Virata (Viraata). King of Matsya and father-in-law of Abhimanyu (son of Arjuna). The Pandavas lived incognito in the service of Virata for a year.
Visakha (Vishaakha). One of three divine brothers of Skanda.
Visala (Vishaala). Son of Ikshvaku, who built the city named Visala.
Visala (Vishaalaa). City built by Visala, son of Ikshvaku.
visalyakarini (vishalyakarini). A drug for a particular disease.
visarga. Proliferation.
visha. Poison.
vishada (vishaadha). Despondency.
vishaya. Object of perception.
vishaya-aasakthi. Interest only in superficial matters; longing for worldly matters.
vishaya-jnana (-jnaana). Objective knowledge.
vishaya-karma. Acts that bind, sensory acts.
Vishnoh-smarana. Remembrance of Vishnu, God.
Vishnu. The Preserver in the trinity of Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu, and Siva (the Destroyer).
Vishnu-maya (-maayaa). Illusory power of God.
Vishnu-murthi (-muurthi). Vishnu.
Vishravas. Son of Pulastya and father of Ravana.
visishta (vishishtha). Supreme, distinguished.
visishta-adwaitha (vishishta-adhvaitha). Qualified nondualism. The doctrine that men's spirits of have a qualified or partial identity with God.
viswa (vishva). Totality, whole creation; also a name of the individual soul in the waking state.
viswa-guru (vishva-guru). Teacher of all beings.
Viswa-karma (Vishva-karma). Architect of the Gods.
Viswa-kartha (Vishvakartha). Creator of the world.
Viswamitra (Vishvaamithra). Sage; known for his efforts to equal Vasishta. Born as warrior Kausika who by the power of the Gayatri transformed himself spiritually. Early counselor of the young Rama.
viswa-rupa (vishva-ruupa). Cosmic form, form of creation, name for the sun.
Viswavadha (Vishvavedhaa). Wife of Dharmadeva.
Viswavara (Vishvavaraa). Female sage.
Visweswara (Vishveshvara). God.
vithala. Depth of hell; second of the lower worlds.
vittha-apahaari. Stealer of wealth.
viveka. Discrimination.
Viveka Chudamani (Chudaamani). Spiritual text, "Crest Jewel of Spiritual Wisdom" by Sankaracharya.
Vivekanada (Vivekaanandha). Disciple of Ramakrishna Vivekananda; one of the founders of the Ramakrishna order. He taught Vedantic philosophy in Europe, America, and India.
Vividha. Demon follower of Kamsa; destroyed by Krishna.
viyoga. Separation.
Vraja. District of Nanda, Krishna's step father.
vratha. Oath; discipline of worship.
vriddhi. Growth, prosperity.
vriksha. Tree.
Vrishabhendrapura. The village where Radha lives.
Vrisha-ratha (-rathah). He whose chariot is the bull.
Vrishni. Famous king of the Yadu dynasty into whose line Krishna was born.
Vritra (Vrithra). Powerful and fierce asura or demon killed by Indra.
vritti (vritthi). Occupation, activity.
vrittis (vritthis). Agitations of the mind, consciousness.
vyabhi-chara (-chaara). Unchaste.
vyadhi (vyaadhi). Illness.
vyakthi. Individual.
vyamoha (vyaamoha). Confusion, delusion.
vyana (vyaana). One of five vital airs; that which is diffused throughout the whole body.
vyapara (vyaapaara). Activity, occupation, business.
Vyasa (Vyaasa). Compiler of Vedas and author of the Mahabharatha, Mahabhagavatham, and Brahma Sutra.
vyashti (vyashthi). Individual object, part of whole.
vyavahara (vyavahaara). Change, worldly activity.
vyavaharika-purusha (vyaavaharika-purusha). Changing soul.


Yaathu. Eternal traveler or spirit; Time.
Yadava (Yaadhava). Krishna's clan, which was founded by Yadu.
Yadu (Yadhu). Founder of Yadava clan into which Krishna was born; son of Yayathi.
yaga (yaaga). Oblation, sacrifice, ceremony in which oblations are presented.
yajna. Holy ritual, sacrifice, or rite. Also, personification of rite (when capitalized).
Yajna. Name for Hayagriva.
yajnaanga. Having the Vedic ritual as one's limbs.
yajna-sala (-shaalaa). Sacrificial hall.
Yajna-Sarathi (-Saarathi). The charioteer for the sacrifice; name for Agni, the God of Fire.
Yajnasravas (Yajnashravas). Nachiketas' father; name for Gauthama.
yajna-vahana (-vaahana). Having the Vedic rituals as one's vehicle.
Yajnavalkya (Yaajnavalkya). Great Upanishadic personage. Priest and guru of King Janaka. Taught the monistic Adwaithic doctrine of the identity of Atma and Brahman in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.
Yajnavalkya Kanda (Yaajnavalkya Khanda). Third and fourth sections of the Brihadaranyakopanishad, which deals with the spiritual teaching of Yajnavalkya to Janaka.
Yaju. Name for Lord Sun in the Yajur-veda.
Yajur-veda (-vedha). Second Veda, consisting of a collection of sacred texts relating to sacrifices.
yajus. Sacrifical prayer.
Yajus-samhitha. Yajur-veda; samhitha means "collection".
Yaksha. Class of semi-celestials; brothers of the demons (rakshasas).
Yakshini (Yakshinee). Women folk of the Yakshas, a class of semi gods. Goddess.
yama (yaama). Three-hour period.
yama. Control of inner senses.
Yama. God of Death; death personified.
yama-dhutha (-dhuutha). Monster.
Yamuna (Yamunaa). Holy river rising in the Himalaya mountains at an elevation of 10,849 feet and flowing for 860 miles before joining the Ganga.
yantra (yanthra). Mechanics; instrument.
yashas. Fame.
Yasoda (Yashodha). Adoptive mother of Krishna.
yathna. Effort.
Yayathi (Yayaathi). Eminent king of Lunar dynasty. Son of Nahusha and father of Nabhaga.
yoga. (a) Union of the individual self or Atma with the Supreme Being or Universal Self; act of yoking. (b) A spiritual discipline or exercise aimed at control of the senses. (c) Science of divine communion. No single definition of the word yoga suffices. Patanjali's Yoga-sutras define yoga as a series of eight spiritual steps leading to union with God. This is different from the eight steps given in the section titled "The eightfold path of yoga" of Prasanthi Vahini.
yoga-buddhi. Yoga of intelligence, purified intellect.
yoga-kshema. Welfare, well-being, happiness.
yoga-kshetra (-kshethra). Abode or state or field of yoga.
yoga-marga (-maarga). Path of yoga.
yogasanas (yogaasanas). Yoga postures.
Yoga-sastra (-shaasthra). Scripture or science that deals with yoga, esp. by Patanjali.
Yoga Sutras (Suuthra). An aphoristic treatise on yoga by Patanjali.
Yoga-vasishta (-vaashishtha). Sacred work in the form of dialogue between Vasishta and his pupil Rama, teaching the way to eternal bliss.
yoga-yajna. The practice of yogic discipline as a sacrificial act.
yogeswara (yogeshvara). Master of yoga.
yogi. One who practices yoga.
yogic (yogik). Of or pertaining to yoga.
yogini (yoginee). Female ascetic or yogi.
Yogini (Yoginee). Female yogi in Mahabharatha.
yojana. Distance of about 9 miles or 14.4 kilometers. (Some calculations say 2.5 miles, 4 miles, or 5 miles.)
Yudhajit (Yudhaajith). Kekaya king; brother of Kaika, Dasaratha's wife, and uncle of Bharatha.
Yudhistira (Yudhishthira). Eldest brother of the Pandavas; also called Dharmaraja.
yuga. Era or age. There is a cycle of four yugas: the Kritha-yuga, Thretha-yuga, Dwapara-yuga, and Kali-yuga. Present age is Kali-yuga.
Yuga-avatar (-avathaar). An incarnation of God come to close one era and inaugurate another.
Yugadi (Yugaadhi). New Year's Day.
yuktha. Proven, inferred.
yukthi. Faculty of reason, inference, deduction.
Yuvanaswa (Yuvanaashva). Son of Dhundumara and father of Mandhata
yuvaraja (yuva-raaja). Heir apparent; crown-prince.


zenana. Part of a dwelling in which the women of the family are secluded.
Zend Avesta (Avestha). Original scriptural work of the Zoroastrians.
Zoroaster. Founder of the ancient Persian religion Zoroastrianism. The sacred text called the Gathas were revealed to him while in deep meditation. Ahur Mazda is the name for the Supreme.





These are the terminology used by Bhagwan Sri Sathya Sai Baba in public
discourses and in a written set of spiritual works known as Vahinis, which are mostly written in his home language Telugu. We keep the list updated as we come across new Sanskrit terms in Sai literature. Send an email to with the term that isn't in the list so we can check and add it to the page. For quick info you can use Google search by combining the search term with the word "meaning" (e.g. piyusha meaning).