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vaak. Vocal organs, word, word of mouth.

Vaak-Devi (-Dhevee). The deity that presides over speech, over the Vedic word; Saraswathi.

vaartha. Vocational knowledge.

Vaasudeva (Vaasudheva). Son of Vasudeva. Name for Krishna.

vaatsalya (vaathsalya). Affection, esp. toward offspring.

vahana (vaahana). Vehicle.

vahini (vaahini). Stream or flow.

Vaidarbhi (Vaidharbhi). A disciple of Pippalada, born in the line of Bhrigu. Also named Bhargava.

Vaikunta (Vaikuntha). Vishnu's heaven.

vairagi (vairaagi). Monk; renunciant.

vairagya (vairaagya). Detachment, renunciation.

Vaisakh (Vaishaakha). One of the 12 months constituting the Hindu lunar year (April-May).

Vaiseshika (Vaisheshika). Later school of Nyaya philosophy founded by Kanada.

vaishamya. Unbalanced.

vaishnavite. Worshiper of Vishnu.

Vaiswanara (Vaishvaanara). Omnipresent, Supreme Self. Name for Sun; means "sum total of created beings".

vaisya (vaishya). Business person, trader, merchant. See Caste.

vaithathya. Falsehood.

Vaivaswatha Manu (Vaivasvatha Manu). Head (Indra) of the present age of Manu (Manvanthara); Prajaprathi. Son of Manu and father of Ikshvaku.

Vajasaneyi (Vaajasaneeya). Section of the Vedas taught by the Sun in the form of a horse (vaji).

vaji (vaaji). Horse.

vajra. Thunderbolt, esp. that of Indra, formed from the bones of sage Dadhichi. See Dadhichi.

Vajra. A grandson of Krishna.

vajra-astra (-asthra). Thunderbolt, esp. of Indra, shaped like a circular discus.

vajra-yoga. A conjunction (in atrological terms) of Indra.

vakya (vaakya). Maxim, statement.

Vali (Vaali). A great monkey-king; brother and enemy of Sugriva.

Vallabhacharya (Vallabhaachaarya). Fifteenth century Vaishnava teacher; advocated non-mortification of the body. Wrote many spiritual texts including commentaries on the Vedanta-sutras.

valli. Section, chapter; literally, creeper.

Valmiki (Vaalmeeki). The saint-poet who wrote the Ramayana.

Vamadeva (Vaamadheva). Ancient hermit. Friend of Vasishta and a priest of Dasaratha; he composed Rig-vedic hymns.

Vamana (Vaamana). Dwarf incarnation of Vishnu, who asked for three feet of land from Emperor Bali and humbled Bali's pride.

vana. Woods, forest.

vanaprastha (vaanaprastha). Forest-dweller, hermit; third of the four stages of life.

vanara (vaanara). Monkey.

vandana. Praise, worship, veneration, salutation.

vanik. Merchant, trader.

Varaha (Varaaha). A boar, one of the ten incarnations of Vishnu.

Varathanthu. Teacher of the hermit Kautsu.

varchaska. A person with splendour, brightness, power.

Vardhamana (Vardhamaana). Splendid palace of King Dasaratha wherein the queens resided.

varna. Caste.

varna-ashrama dharma (-aashrama dharma). Obligations relating to the caste-stage of life.

varna-dharma. Dharma of any caste or tribe.

varuna. Water, rain.

Varuna. Chief Rig-vedic god associated with Mitra; god of rain, water, the ocean, night; a great sage.

Varuni (Vaarunee). Daughter of Varuna, who was married by devas (gods).

Varuni Vidya (Vaaruni Vidhyaa). Knowledge of the sage Bhrigu.

vasana (vaasana). Inclination, impression of anything remaining in the subconscious mind from past action.

vasantha. Spring season.

vashatkaara. A ritual exclamation uttered at the end of a sacrificial hymn for offering of fire oblations.

Vasishta (Vashishtha). One of the greatest rishis (sages) of ancient times; priest of the solar race of kings; revealer of several Vedic hymns. Had sacred, wishfulfilling cow called Nandini.

Vasishta-smrithi (Vashishtha-smrithi). Law book written by Vasishta.

vasthu. The Real; material object.

vasu. Wealth.

Vasu. Son of Kasu and grandson of Brahma.

Vasudeva (Vasudheva). Father of Krishna.

Vasudeva (Vasudheva). God of wealth.

Vasuki (Vaasuki). One of the famous serpents or Nagas.

vayu (vaayu). Wind, air.

Vayu (Vaayu). The God of wind.

Veda (Vedha). See Vedas.

Veda-matha (Vedha-maatha). The mother that is the Veda.

Vedangas (Vedhaangaa). Subsidiary treatises of the Vedas: six sciences of proper pronunciation, grammar, metre, etymology, astronomy, ritual.

Vedanta (Vedhaantha). The doctrine of either pure non-dualism, i.e. the identity of Brahman and the Atma, or conditioned non-dualism; the end or bottom line of the Vedas, which declares this doctrine.

Vedanta vaakya-sravana (Vedhaantha vaakya-shravana). Listening to spiritual texts.

Vedantic (Vedhaanthik). Of or pertaining to Vedanta.

vedanthin (vedhaanthin). Knower of Vedanta.

Veda-rupa (Vedha-ruupa). Form of the Veda.

Vedartha (Vedhaartha). Meaning or goal of the Vedas.

Vedas (Vedhas). Entire body of ancient sacred revelations of truth, chief among which are four books: the Rig-veda, Yajur-veda, Sama-veda, and Atharvana-veda.

Veda-swarupa (Vedha-Svaruupa). Embodiment of the Veda.

Veda-vidya (Vedha-vidhyaa). Knowledge of the Vedas.

veda-vid (vedha-vith). One who has mastered the Vedas.

Veda Vyasa (Vedha Vyaasa). Name for Vyasa. See Vyasa.

Vedic (Vedhik). Of or pertaining to the Vedas.

veena. Indian lute

Veeradasa (Veeradhaasa). A member of the Ganga clan; his daughter married Sumanthra.

Vena. Infamous king whose hand was churned by the hermits, producing Prithu, ruler of the world.

Venkata. Name for Vishnu. He is installed in Tirupati.

Venkatagiri. Sacred hill 80 miles from Madras.

venu-naada (-naadha). Flute sound.

vesma (veshma). House.

Vibhandaka. Hermit of family of Kasyapa; his son Rishyasringa was born from his semen spilled upon viewing Urvasi, the celestial damsel.

Vibhishana (Vibheeshana). Brother of Ravana; Rakshasa chief who represented pure mindedness and sided with Rama.

vibhushana (vibhuushana). Ornament, shining jewel.

vibhuthi (vibhuuthi). Holy ash.

Vibudha. Son of Devamedha and father of Kirthiratha.

vichakshana. Discriminating intellect.

vichara (vichaara). Inquiry, analysis, and reflection of the nature of the Self or truth.

vicharana (vichaarana). Enquiry, analysis.

Vidarbha (Vidharbha). Brother of Bharatha and son of sage Rishabha. Also, Sagara was the emperor of Vidarbha.

Vidarbha. An ancient country in India.

videha (vidheha). Deceased, free from body.

Videha (Vidheha). Royal dynasty of Janaka; the kingdom of Mithila, native country of Sita.

videha-muktha (vidheha-muktha). One liberated when deceased.

videha-mukthi (vidheha-mukthi). Transcorporeal liberation.

vidithatmas (vidhithaathmas). Knowers of the Atma.

Vidura (Vidhura). Brother and chief minister of King Dhritharashtra, the father of the Kauravas. See Mahabharatha.

vidwan (vidhvaan). Wise person.

vidya (vidhyaa). Spiritual education, spiritual knowledge, learning, that which illumines, that which gives light, supreme teaching.

vidya-maya (vidhyaa-maayaa). Knowledge-based illusion.

Vidyaranya Madhwacharya (Vidhyaaranya Maadhvaachaarya). See Madhwacharya.

Vidyujjihva (Vidhyujjihva). Demonic follower of Ravana who practiced sorcery and witchcraft.

Vighneswara (Vighneshvara). Overcomer of obstacles, Ganesha, son of Siva.

vigrahavan (vigrahavaan). Personified.

vihara (vihaara). Activity, recreation.

vijaya. Victory.

Vijaya. Conqueror, or Victory (name for Arjuna).

vi-jnana (vi-jnaana). Highest wisdom; discriminating faculty of the intellect; spiritual wisdom beyond the material plane.

vi-jnana-ghana (vi-jnaana-ghana). Sum and substance of spiritual wisdom.

vi-jnana-mandir (vi-jnaana-mandhi). Temple of spiritual wisdom.

vi-jnana-maya kosa (vi-jnaana-maya kosha). Body sheath of intellect, intuition.

vi-jnani (vi-jnaani). Scientist; wise person; one who has developed and correctly applied spiritual power.

vi-kalpa. Negativity, indecisiveness.

vi-kara (-kaara). Transformation, change.

vi-kari (vikaari). A mutable entity.

vi-karma. Wrong action.

vikasa (vikaasa). Expansion, blooming state; illuminating.

Vikata. One of the monkeys who wanted to jump over the ocean to get to Lanka.

vikriti (vikrithi). Changed, transformed.

vikshepa. Waywardness; distracted or diffused mind that obstructs concentration; projecting.

vikshepa-sakthi (-shakthi). Projecting power.

Vikukshi. Son of Kukshi and father of Bana.

vilasa (vilaasa). Play, manifestation; diversionary activity.

vimala. Having all impurity destroyed.

vimana (vimaana). Vehicle capable of flying into space.

vimarsha. Quest.

vinasa (vinaashaa). Destruction, extinction.

vinaya. Modest conduct, discretion, humility.

Vindhya mountain range. One of seven chief holy mountain ranges. Separates South India from North India and faces the Himalayas.

viparya-duraagraha. Exaggerated conceit.

Virat-purusha (Viraat-purusha). First incarnation of Brahma; Cosmic Divinity; Lord in His form as the physical manifested cosmos.

Viraat-rupa (Virat-ruupa). Universal Form, Supreme Being.

Virat-swarupa (Viraat-svaruupa). The Lord in His form as manifested universe; the cosmic form of God.

Viradha (Viraadha). Fierce ogre; killed by Rama in the Dandaka Forest.

Virasaivopasana (Veerashaiva-upaasana). Exclusive Siva worship.

Virata (Viraata). King of Matsya and father-in-law of Abhimanyu (son of Arjuna). The Pandavas lived incognito in the service of Virata for a year.

Visakha (Vishaakha). One of three divine brothers of Skanda.

Visala (Vishaala). Son of Ikshvaku, who built the city named Visala.

Visala (Vishaalaa). City built by Visala, son of Ikshvaku.

visalyakarini (vishalyakarini). A drug for a particular disease.

visarga. Proliferation.

visha. Poison.

vishada (vishaadha). Despondency.

vishaya. Object of perception.

vishaya-aasakthi. Interest only in superficial matters; longing for worldly matters.

vishaya-jnana (-jnaana). Objective knowledge.

vishaya-karma. Acts that bind, sensory acts.

Vishnoh-smarana. Remembrance of Vishnu, God.

Vishnu. The Preserver in the trinity of Brahma (the Creator), Vishnu, and Siva (the Destroyer).

Vishnu-maya (-maayaa). Illusory power of God.

Vishnu-murthi (-muurthi). Vishnu.

Vishravas. Son of Pulastya and father of Ravana.

visishta (vishishtha). Supreme, distinguished.

visishta-adwaitha (vishishta-adhvaitha). Qualified nondualism. The doctrine that men's spirits of have a qualified or partial identity with God.

viswa (vishva). Totality, whole creation; also a name of the individual soul in the waking state.

viswa-guru (vishva-guru). Teacher of all beings.

Viswa-karma (Vishva-karma). Architect of the Gods.

Viswa-kartha (Vishvakartha). Creator of the world.

Viswamitra (Vishvaamithra). Sage; known for his efforts to equal Vasishta. Born as warrior Kausika who by the power of the Gayatri transformed himself spiritually. Early counselor of the young Rama.

viswa-rupa (vishva-ruupa). Cosmic form, form of creation, name for the sun.

Viswavadha (Vishvavedhaa). Wife of Dharmadeva.

Viswavara (Vishvavaraa). Female sage.

Visweswara (Vishveshvara). God.

vithala. Depth of hell; second of the lower worlds.

vittha-apahaari. Stealer of wealth.

viveka. Discrimination.

Viveka Chudamani (Chudaamani). Spiritual text, "Crest Jewel of Spiritual Wisdom" by Sankaracharya.

Vivekanada (Vivekaanandha). Disciple of Ramakrishna Vivekananda; one of the founders of the Ramakrishna order. He taught Vedantic philosophy in Europe, America, and India.

Vividha. Demon follower of Kamsa; destroyed by Krishna.

viyoga. Separation.

Vraja. District of Nanda, Krishna's step father.

vratha. Oath; discipline of worship.

vriddhi. Growth, prosperity.

vriksha. Tree.

Vrishabhendrapura. The village where Radha lives.

Vrisha-ratha (-rathah). He whose chariot is the bull.

Vrishni. Famous king of the Yadu dynasty into whose line Krishna was born.

Vritra (Vrithra). Powerful and fierce asura or demon killed by Indra.

vritti (vritthi). Occupation, activity.

vrittis (vritthis). Agitations of the mind, consciousness.

vyabhi-chara (-chaara). Unchaste.

vyadhi (vyaadhi). Illness.

vyakthi. Individual.

vyamoha (vyaamoha). Confusion, delusion.

vyana (vyaana). One of five vital airs; that which is diffused throughout the whole body.

vyapara (vyaapaara). Activity, occupation, business.

Vyasa (Vyaasa). Compiler of Vedas and author of the Mahabharatha, Mahabhagavatham, and Brahma Sutra.

vyashti (vyashthi). Individual object, part of whole.

vyavahara (vyavahaara). Change, worldly activity.

vyavaharika-purusha (vyaavaharika-purusha). Changing soul.

Yaathu. Eternal traveler or spirit; Time.

Yadava (Yaadhava). Krishna's clan, which was founded by Yadu.

Yadu (Yadhu). Founder of Yadava clan into which Krishna was born; son of Yayathi.

yaga (yaaga). Oblation, sacrifice, ceremony in which oblations are presented.

yajna. Holy ritual, sacrifice, or rite. Also, personification of rite (when capitalized).

Yajna. Name for Hayagriva.

yajnaanga. Having the Vedic ritual as one's limbs.

yajna-sala (-shaalaa). Sacrificial hall.

Yajna-Sarathi (-Saarathi). The charioteer for the sacrifice; name for Agni, the God of Fire.

Yajnasravas (Yajnashravas). Nachiketas' father; name for Gauthama.

yajna-vahana (-vaahana). Having the Vedic rituals as one's vehicle.

Yajnavalkya (Yaajnavalkya). Great Upanishadic personage. Priest and guru of King Janaka. Taught the monistic Adwaithic doctrine of the identity of Atma and Brahman in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.

Yajnavalkya Kanda (Yaajnavalkya Khanda). Third and fourth sections of the Brihadaranyakopanishad, which deals with the spiritual teaching of Yajnavalkya to Janaka.

Yaju. Name for Lord Sun in the Yajur-veda.

Yajur-veda (-vedha). Second Veda, consisting of a collection of sacred texts relating to sacrifices.

yajus. Sacrifical prayer.

Yajus-samhitha. Yajur-veda; samhitha means "collection".

Yaksha. Class of semi-celestials; brothers of the demons (rakshasas).

Yakshini (Yakshinee). Women folk of the Yakshas, a class of semi gods. Goddess.

yama (yaama). Three-hour period.

yama. Control of inner senses.

Yama. God of Death; death personified.

yama-dhutha (-dhuutha). Monster.

Yamuna (Yamunaa). Holy river rising in the Himalaya mountains at an elevation of 10,849 feet and flowing for 860 miles before joining the Ganga.

yantra (yanthra). Mechanics; instrument.

yashas. Fame.

Yasoda (Yashodha). Adoptive mother of Krishna.

yathna. Effort.

Yayathi (Yayaathi). Eminent king of Lunar dynasty. Son of Nahusha and father of Nabhaga.

yoga. (a) Union of the individual self or Atma with the Supreme Being or Universal Self; act of yoking. (b) A spiritual discipline or exercise aimed at control of the senses. (c) Science of divine communion. No single definition of the word yoga suffices. Patanjali's Yoga-sutras define yoga as a series of eight spiritual steps leading to union with God. This is different from the eight steps given in the section titled "The eightfold path of yoga" of Prasanthi Vahini.

yoga-buddhi. Yoga of intelligence, purified intellect.

yoga-kshema. Welfare, well-being, happiness.

yoga-kshetra (-kshethra). Abode or state or field of yoga.

yoga-marga (-maarga). Path of yoga.

yogasanas (yogaasanas). Yoga postures.

Yoga-sastra (-shaasthra). Scripture or science that deals with yoga, esp. by Patanjali.

Yoga Sutras (Suuthra). An aphoristic treatise on yoga by Patanjali.

Yoga-vasishta (-vaashishtha). Sacred work in the form of dialogue between Vasishta and his pupil Rama, teaching the way to eternal bliss.

yoga-yajna. The practice of yogic discipline as a sacrificial act.

yogeswara (yogeshvara). Master of yoga.

yogi. One who practices yoga.

yogic (yogik). Of or pertaining to yoga.

yogini (yoginee). Female ascetic or yogi.

Yogini (Yoginee). Female yogi in Mahabharatha.

yojana. Distance of about 9 miles or 14.4 kilometers. (Some calculations say 2.5 miles, 4 miles, or 5 miles.)

Yudhajit (Yudhaajith). Kekaya king; brother of Kaika, Dasaratha's wife, and uncle of Bharatha.

Yudhistira (Yudhishthira). Eldest brother of the Pandavas; also called Dharmaraja.

yuga. Era or age. There is a cycle of four yugas: the Kritha-yuga, Thretha-yuga, Dwapara-yuga, and Kali-yuga. Present age is Kali-yuga.

Yuga-avatar (-avathaar). An incarnation of God come to close one era and inaugurate another.

Yugadi (Yugaadhi). New Year's Day.

yuktha. Proven, inferred.

yukthi. Faculty of reason, inference, deduction.

Yuvanaswa (Yuvanaashva). Son of Dhundumara and father of Mandhata

yuvaraja (yuva-raaja). Heir apparent; crown-prince.

zenana. Part of a dwelling in which the women of the family are secluded.

Zend Avesta (Avestha). Original scriptural work